• Publications
  • Influence
Pursuit of the muscular ideal: Physical and psychological consequences and putative risk factors.
Developing a lean muscular figure for the purposes of sports and/or appearance has become a central issue for males. Concern has been raised because the desire to develop such a body build may leadExpand
  • 396
  • 46
  • PDF
Estimated prevalence of anabolic steroid use among male high school seniors.
The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) is perceived by the media, by segments of the sports medicine and athletic communities, and by the public to have grown to epidemic proportions.Expand
  • 489
  • 20
Anabolic-androgenic steroid use in the United States.
OBJECTIVE To estimate the size of the anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) user population in the United States, to examine characteristics of AAS users, and to explore the association between AAS useExpand
  • 324
  • 19
Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids and related substances in sport and exercise.
Anabolic androgenic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone, which is the primary male sex hormone. Anabolic androgenic steroids are used to enhance athletic performance and appearance.Expand
  • 244
  • 17
Risk Factors Associated With Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use Among Adolescents
AbstractTo identify risk factors associated with anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use among adolescents, computerised and manual literature searches were performed and the resultant local, state,Expand
  • 170
  • 14
Trends in anabolic-androgenic steroid use among adolescents.
OBJECTIVE To examine the trends in anabolic steroid use among adolescents in the United States between 1988 and 1996. DESIGN Computerized and manual literature searches were performed, and theExpand
  • 136
  • 9
Anabolic Steroids in Sport and Exercise
Part I: History and Incidence of Use: Chapter 1. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: A Historical Perspective and Definition, Charles D. Kochakian. Chapter 2. History of Anabolic Steroid Use in Sport andExpand
  • 148
  • 7
Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
SummaryThe use of drugs to enhance physical performance has been observed for thousands of years. Today, individuals continue to use a variety of substances, including anabolic-androgenic steroids,Expand
  • 250
  • 6
The history of synthetic testosterone.
The era of increasingly sophisticated hormonal treatments led to the synthesis of testosterone in 1935 the primary male hormone produced by the testicles. Since the 1940s countless athletes andExpand
  • 136
  • 6
Doping among adolescent athletes.
The use of drugs to enhance physical performance and appearance has been observed for thousands of years. Today individuals, including adolescents, continue to employ a wide variety of drugs in theExpand
  • 132
  • 6