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What did domestication do to dogs? A new account of dogs' sensitivity to human actions
TLDR
The Two Stage Hypothesis is proposed, according to which the sensitivity of an individual animal to human actions depends on acceptance of humans as social companions, and conditioning to follow human limbs, without requiring the use of additional mechanisms.
Can fish really feel pain
TLDR
Overall, the behavioral and neurobiological evidence reviewed shows fish responses to nociceptive stimuli are limited and fishes are unlikely to experience pain.
Reinforcement accounts for transitive inference performance
TLDR
In this paper, simple associative learning models are explored as accounts of nonverbal transitive inference performance in humans and a Bush-Mosteller-based and a Rescorla-Wagner-based model are considered.
Transitive inference formation in pigeons.
Pigeons were trained with 4 pairs of visual stimuli in a 5-term series―A+ B−, B+C, C+D→, and D+ E− (in which plus [+] denotes reward and minus [−] denotes nonreward)―before the unreinforced test pair
Ontogeny's impacts on human–dog communication
Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) use human gestures but not nonhuman tokens to find hidden food.
TLDR
The results indicate that dogs are more sensitive to human cues than equivalent nonhuman cues, and that the size of the cue is a critical element in determining dogs' success in following it.
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