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The Effect of Flexible Growth Rates on Optimal Sizes and Development Times in a Seasonal Environment
The interrelationships among development time, growth rate, and adult size are investigated using simple optimization models of a seasonal life history in which larger adults have greaterExpand
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Monandry and polyandry as alternative lifestyles in a butterfly
Butterflies show considerable variability in female mating frequency, ranging from monandrous species to females mating several times in their lifetime. Degree of polyandry also varies withinExpand
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Parental defence of offspring: A model and an example
Abstract Defence of offspring against predators is an important form of parental investment in many species. We derive a model for the optimal level of parental defence during a predator attack. AExpand
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Sex-related variation in growth rate as a result of selection for large size and protandry in a bivoltine butterfly, Pieris napi
This paper explores what factors influence size, development time and growth rate in a polyandrous and bivoltine butterfly, Pieris napi L. In butterflies male/female sexual size dimorphism has beenExpand
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Egg-laying patterns in butterflies in relation to their phenology and the visual apparency and abundance of their host plants
Summary1.The egg-laying behaviour in the wild of 51 butterflies in Sweden is studied: three different patterns emerge. Firstly, although the majority of butterflies deposit their eggs on the plantsExpand
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Proximate Causes of Rensch’s Rule: Does Sexual Size Dimorphism in Arthropods Result from Sex Differences in Development Time?
A prominent interspecific pattern of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is Rensch’s rule, according to which male body size is more variable or evolutionarily divergent than female body size. AssumingExpand
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Seasonal butterfly design: morphological plasticity among three developmental pathways relative to sex, flight and thermoregulation
The temperate‐zone butterfly Pararge aegeria can use three developmental pathways corresponding to different seasonal cohorts: (1) development with a pupal winter diapause resulting in early springExpand
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Mass and production rate of ejaculates in relation to monandry/polyandry in butterflies
SummaryThe mating system maintained in a species has a strong effect on the degree of sperm competition, and certainty of paternity should accordingly influence the optimal sperm content, nutrientExpand
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Polyandry and its effect on female reproduction in the green-veined white butterfly (Pieris napi L.)
SummaryIn many insects nutrients transferred by the male to the female at mating are later incorporated into both the eggs and soma of the mated females. Accordingly, it has been suggested thatExpand
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Absence of Trade‐Offs Between Sexual Size Dimorphism and Early Male Emergence in a Butterfly
Protandry, here defined as the earlier emergence of males, is a common feature in life histories and could be the result of sexual selection on males to maximize matings, or alternatively anExpand
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