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Trafficking of GABAA Receptors, Loss of Inhibition, and a Mechanism for Pharmacoresistance in Status Epilepticus
GA exposure mimics the effects of SE on mIPSC and tonic GABAA current amplitudes in granule cells, consistent with the model predictions, and provides a potential mechanism for the inhibitory loss that characterizes initiation of SE and for the pharmacoresistance to benzodiazepines.
Status epilepticus: pathophysiology and management in adults
Patterns of Status Epilepticus-Induced Neuronal Injury during Development and Long-Term Consequences
- R. Sankar, Don Shin, Hantao Liu, A. Mazarati, A. Pereira de Vasconcelos, C. Wasterlain
- BiologyThe Journal of Neuroscience
- 15 October 1998
The results provide strong evidence for the vulnerability of the immature brain to seizure-induced damage, which bears features of both necrotic and apoptotic death and contributes to synaptic reorganization and the development of chronic epilepsy.
Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Brain Damage from Status Epilepticus
Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of brain damage in SE should lead to further improvement in treatment and outcome, and Extrasynaptic factors may also play an important role in seizure spread and in maintaining SE.
Modulation of Hippocampal Excitability and Seizures by Galanin
The data provide further evidence that hippocampal Galanin acts as an endogenous anticonvulsant and suggest that genetically induced changes in galanin expression modulate both hippocampal excitability and predisposition to epileptic seizures.
Substance P is expressed in hippocampal principal neurons during status epilepticus and plays a critical role in the maintenance of status epilepticus.
- H. Liu, A. Mazarati, H. Katsumori, R. Sankar, C. Wasterlain
- Biology, PsychologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 27 April 1999
It is shown that intrahippocampal administration of SP triggers self-sustaining status epilepticus (SSSE) in response to stimulation of the perforant path for periods too brief to have any effect in control rats, and this SSSE generates a pattern of acute hippocampal damage resembling that known to occur in human epilepsy.
Posttraumatic epilepsy and treatment.
- James W. Y. Chen, R. Ruff, R. Eavey, C. Wasterlain
- Medicine, PsychologyJournal of rehabilitation research and…
Posttraumatic epilepsy is a major long-term complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Optimal seizure control is essential to the physical and emotional health of veterans with TBI and to their ability to lead productive lives.
Apoptosis in a neonatal rat model of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia.
Features of apoptosis are present in the described model of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia and may represent a mode of ischemic cell death that could be the target of novel treatments that could potentially expand the therapeutic window for stroke.
Galanin Modulation of Seizures and Seizure Modulation of Hippocampal Galanin in Animal Models of Status Epilepticus
It is suggested that hippocampal galanin acts as an endogenous anticonvulsant via galan in an animal model of status epilepticus and may contribute to the maintenance of seizure activity, whereas the increase of Galanin concentration and the appearance of galanIn-immunoreactive neurons may favor the cessation of SSSE.