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Evolutionary Conserved Role for TARPs in the Gating of Glutamate Receptors and Tuning of Synaptic Function
TLDR
It is shown that TARPs are obligate auxiliary subunits for AMPARs with a primary, evolutionarily conserved functional role in the modification of current kinetics.
Reconstitution of invertebrate glutamate receptor function depends on stargazin-like proteins.
TLDR
Ce STG-1 and homologues cloned from Drosophila and Apis mellifera have evolutionarily conserved functions and can partially substitute for one another to reconstitute glutamate-gated currents from rat, Drosophile, and C. elegans.
Conserved SOL-1 proteins regulate ionotropic glutamate receptor desensitization.
TLDR
This work uses genetic and pharmacological perturbations along with rapid perfusion electrophysiological techniques to demonstrate that SOL-1 functions to slow the rate and limit the extent of receptor desensitization as well as to enhance the recovery from desensItization.
Novel excitatory Conus peptides define a new conotoxin superfamily
TLDR
The I‐conotoxin superfamily should provide a rich lode of pharmacological tools for dissecting and understanding the targeted signaling components in peripheral axons, and promise to provide a significant new technology platform for dissected the molecular components of axons.
The SOL-2/Neto Auxiliary Protein Modulates the Function of AMPA-Subtype Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors
TLDR
This work identifies another auxiliary protein, SOL-2, a CUB-domain protein that associates with both the related auxiliary subunit SOL-1 and with the GLR-1 AMPAR, and demonstrates that SOL- 1 and SOL- 2 have an ongoing role in the adult nervous system to control AMPAR-mediated currents.
κ-Conotoxin Pviia Is a Peptide Inhibiting theShaker K+ Channel*
TLDR
At least four pharmacologically distinct superfamilies of Conus peptides belong to the same “O” superfamily, with the ω- and κ-conotoxins forming one branch, and the δ- and μO-conotsins forming a second major branch.
Speciation of Cone Snails and Interspecific Hyperdivergence of Their Venom Peptides: Potential Evolutionary Significance of Introns a
TLDR
A striking segment‐specific rate of divergence of Conus prepropeptides suggests a role for introns in evolution: exons separated by introns have the potential to evolve very different mutation rates.
The T-superfamily of Conotoxins*
TLDR
The T-superfamily of conotoxins was found to be a large and diverse group of peptides, widely distributed in the 500 different Conusspecies, and although the peptides are small, their sequences are strikingly divergent, with different peptides of the superfamily exhibiting varying extents of post-translational modification.
γ-Glutamyl carboxylation: An extracellular posttranslational modification that antedates the divergence of molluscs, arthropods, and chordates
TLDR
Describing both cDNA and genomic clones for the γ-glutamyl carboxylase from the marine mollusc, Conus, reveals that an intron-richγ-car boxylase was present early in the evolution of the animal phyla; the data raise the possibility that most introns in the genes of both mammals and molluscs antedate the divergence of these phyla.
Definition of the M-conotoxin superfamily: characterization of novel peptides from molluscivorous Conus venoms.
TLDR
The M-conotoxin superfamily is defined using both biochemical and molecular criteria and can be provisionally assigned to four distinct groups within the M-superfamily based on sequence similarity within and divergence between each group.
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