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Environmentally related patterns of reproductive modes in the aphid Myzus persicae and the predominance of two ‘superclones’ in Victoria, Australia
TLDR
Interestingly, obligate parthenogens were, on average, more heterozygous and exhibited larger allele size differences between the two alleles at individual loci than cyclical parthenogenesis, which may reflect the previously proposed model of biased mutational divergence of microsatellite alleles within asexual aphid lineages.
Genotypic Variation and the Role of Defensive Endosymbionts in an All-Parthenogenetic Host-Parasitoid Interaction
TLDR
Aphis fabae raises the question why H. defensa does not go to fixation and highlights the need to develop new models to understand the dynamics of endosymbiont-mediated coevolution, and suggests that possessing symbionts may also be favorable in the absence of parasitoids.
Aggression and competition for shelter between a native and an introduced crayfish in Europe
TLDR
Access to limited shelter was generally determined by aggressive dominance, although species-specific preference also influenced the outcome of competition for shelter, and agonistic interactions between equally sized contestants were more severe than between animals of different size.
A strain of the bacterial symbiont Regiella insecticola protects aphids against parasitoids
TLDR
Exposing these lines to the parasitoid Aphidius colemani showed clearly that unlike other strains of this bacterium, this specific isolate of R. insecticola provides strong protection against parasitic wasps, suggesting that the ability to protect their host against natural enemies may evolve readily in multiple species of endosymbiotic bacteria.
Parasitoids as vectors of facultative bacterial endosymbionts in aphids
TLDR
It is demonstrated for the first time, to the knowledge, that parasitoids can indeed transfer H. defensa and R. insecticola by sequentially stabbing infected and uninfected individuals of their host, Aphis fabae, establishing new, heritable infections.
The evolutionary ecology of symbiont‐conferred resistance to parasitoids in aphids
TLDR
It is argued that defensive symbionts represent a problem for biological control of pest aphids, and it is proposed to mitigate this problem by exploiting the parasitoids’ demonstrated ability to rapidly evolve counteradaptations to symbiont‐conferred resistance.
Development, specificity and sublethal effects of symbiont‐conferred resistance to parasitoids in aphids
TLDR
It is concluded that when faced with hosts possessing H. defensa, aphid parasitoids are under selection to preferentially attack the youngest host stages and/or to discriminate against symbiont-protected aphids.
Comparative population growth parameters of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), on different common bean cultivars
TLDR
It is found that the choice of bean variety will affect how fast spider mite populations reach damaging levels in a culture, resulting in large differences for population growth parameters like the intrinsic rate of natural increase, net reproductive rate, finite rate of increase and doubling time.
Explaining the coexistence of asexuals with their sexual progenitors: no evidence for general‐purpose genotypes in obligate parthenogens of the peach‐potato aphid, Myzus persicae
TLDR
The lack of an overall fitness difference between reproductive modes suggests that cyclical parthenogens incur no cost of polyphenism, but neither can they compensate for the cost of sex during the parthenogenetic phase of their life cycle.
Only helpful when required: a longevity cost of harbouring defensive symbionts
TLDR
An important and clearly defined cost is demonstrated: reduced longevity of Hamiltonella defensa, a bacterial endosymbiont of aphids that protects hosts against parasitoids but only occurs at moderate frequencies in most aphid populations.
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