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Storage and Release of ATP from Astrocytes in Culture*
TLDR
It is reported that, besides the described basal ATP release facilitated by exposure to calcium-free medium, astrocytes release purine under conditions of elevated calcium, and the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors, which strongly evokes glutamate release, was only slightly effective in promoting purine secretion. Expand
The orphan receptor GPR17 identified as a new dual uracil nucleotides/cysteinyl‐leukotrienes receptor
TLDR
GPR17, a Gi‐coupled orphan receptor at intermediate phylogenetic position between P2Y and CysLT receptors, is specifically activated by both families of endogenous ligands, leading to both adenylyl cyclase inhibition and intracellular calcium increases, which may lead to dualistic drugs of previously unexplored therapeutic potential. Expand
Acid sphingomyelinase activity triggers microparticle release from glial cells
TLDR
The results represent the first demonstration that activation of acid sphingomyelinase is necessary and sufficient for microparticle release from glial cells and define key molecular effectors of microparticles formation and IL‐1β release, thus, opening new strategies for the treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases. Expand
Synaptic vesicle dynamics in living cultured hippocampal neurons visualized with CY3-conjugated antibodies directed against the lumenal domain of synaptotagmin
TLDR
Findings indicate that synaptic vesicle aggregation may occur independently of cell-cell interaction, but that, in the absence of a synaptic contact, vesicles clusters are not stably anchored to a given region of the cell surface. Expand
Astrocyte-derived ATP induces vesicle shedding and IL-1 beta release from microglia.
TLDR
Astrocyt-derived ATP is identified as the endogenous factor responsible for microvesicle shedding in microglia and the mechanisms by which astrocyte- derived ATP triggers IL-1beta release from these cells are revealed. Expand
Nucleotide‐mediated calcium signaling in rat cortical astrocytes: Role of P2X and P2Y receptors
TLDR
Based on agonist preference of known P2 receptors, it is concluded that, in rat astrocytes, ATP‐induced calcium rises are at least mediated by P2X7 and P2Y1 receptors; additional receptors may also contribute. Expand
Astrocyte-Derived ATP Induces Vesicle Shedding and IL-1β Release from Microglia1
TLDR
Astrocyt-derived ATP is identified as the endogenous factor responsible for microvesicle shedding in microglia and the mechanisms by which astrocyte- derived ATP triggers IL-1β release from these cells are revealed. Expand
SNAP-25 Modulation of Calcium Dynamics Underlies Differences in GABAergic and Glutamatergic Responsiveness to Depolarization
TLDR
It is demonstrated that hippocampal GABAergic synapses, both in culture and in brain, lack SNAP-25 and are resistant to the action of botulinum toxins type A and E, which cleave this SNARE protein. Expand
Purinergic Control of T Cell Activation by ATP Released Through Pannexin-1 Hemichannels
TLDR
Pannexin hemichannel–mediated release of ATP provides an autocrine, costimulatory signal for T cell activation and therapeutic intervention against ATP synthesis and release may be of benefit in the treatment of T cell–mediated inflammatory diseases. Expand
Myeloid microvesicles are a marker and therapeutic target for neuroinflammation
TLDR
The aim of the study was to evaluate whether MVs are released by microglia/macrophages in vivo and whether their number varies in brain inflammatory conditions, such as multiple sclerosis. Expand
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