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Horizontal Gene Transfer from Diverse Bacteria to an Insect Genome Enables a Tripartite Nested Mealybug Symbiosis
The smallest reported bacterial genome belongs to Tremblaya princeps, a symbiont of Planococcus citri mealybugs (PCIT). Tremblaya PCIT not only has a 139 kb genome, but possesses its own bacterialExpand
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An Interdependent Metabolic Patchwork in the Nested Symbiosis of Mealybugs
Highly reduced genomes of 144-416 kilobases have been described from nutrient-provisioning bacterial symbionts of several insect lineages [1-5]. Some host insects have formed stable associations withExpand
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Molecular data support a rapid radiation of aphids in the Cretaceous and multiple origins of host alternation
Many aphids display a remarkably complex life cycle of host alternation, in which cyclical parthenogenesis is combined with the obligate use of two unrelated host plants. We used mitochondrialExpand
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Molecular phylogeny of the homoptera: a paraphyletic taxon
Homoptera and Heteroptera comprise a large insect assemblage, the Hemiptera. Many of the plant sap-sucking Homoptera possess unusual and complex life histories and depend on maternally inherited,Expand
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Mealybug β-proteobacterial endosymbionts contain γ-proteobacterial symbionts
Some insects have cultivated intimate relationships with mutualistic bacteria since their early evolutionary history. Most ancient ‘primary’ endosymbionts live within the cytoplasm of large,Expand
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The tryptophan biosynthetic pathway of aphid endosymbionts (Buchnera): Genetics and evolution of plasmid-associated anthranilate synthase (trpEG) within the aphididae
The bacterial endosymbionts (Buchnera) from the aphidsRhopalosiphum padi, R. maidis, Schizaphis graminum, andAcyrthosiphon pisum contain the genes for anthranilate synthase (trpEG) on plasmids madeExpand
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Faster evolutionary rates in endosymbiotic bacteria than in cospeciating insect hosts
The hypothesis of a universal molecular clock holds that divergent lineages exhibit approximately constant rates of nucleotide substitution over evolutionary time for a particular macromolecule. WeExpand
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Family-Level Divergences in the Stinging Wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata), with Correlations to Angiosperm Diversification
Diversification in insects has often been linked to the evolution of angiosperms. The majority of studies reporting this link, however, have been done on herbivorous insects. It remains unclear ifExpand
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Molecular relationships and species divergence among Phragmatopoma spp. (Polychaeta: Sabellaridae) in the Americas
Phragmatopoma spp. are marine, reef-building polychaetes that inhabit the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones of both coasts of the Americas. Phragmatopoma californica is found in the Pacific OceanExpand
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The Growth of Phylogenetic Information and the Need for a Phylogenetic Data Base
In the wake of widespread acceptance of phylogenetic methods, it is appropriate to assess how fast phylogenetic knowledge is accumulating. To obtain a rough indica? tion of this rate, we surveyedExpand
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