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Understanding the Warburg Effect: The Metabolic Requirements of Cell Proliferation
Fuel Economy for Growing Cells Sophisticated 21st-century analyses of the signaling pathways that control cell growth have led researchers back to the seminal work of Otto Warburg, who discovered inExpand
An inhibitor of Bcl-2 family proteins induces regression of solid tumours
Proteins in the Bcl-2 family are central regulators of programmed cell death, and members that inhibit apoptosis, such as Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, are overexpressed in many cancers and contribute to tumourExpand
Proapoptotic BAX and BAK: A Requisite Gateway to Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Death
Multiple death signals influence mitochondria during apoptosis, yet the critical initiating event for mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo has been unclear. tBID, the caspase-activated form of aExpand
Cancer-associated IDH1 mutations produce 2-hydroxyglutarate
Mutations in the enzyme cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) are a common feature of a major subset of primary human brain cancers. These mutations occur at a single amino acid residue of theExpand
Leukemic IDH1 and IDH2 mutations result in a hypermethylation phenotype, disrupt TET2 function, and impair hematopoietic differentiation.
Cancer-associated IDH mutations are characterized by neomorphic enzyme activity and resultant 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) production. Mutational and epigenetic profiling of a large acute myeloidExpand
bcl-x, a bcl-2-related gene that functions as a dominant regulator of apoptotic cell death
We report the isolation of bcl-x, a bcl-2-related gene that can function as a bcl-2-independent regulator of programmed cell death (apoptosis). Alternative splicing results in two distinct bcl-xExpand
The biology of cancer: metabolic reprogramming fuels cell growth and proliferation.
Cell proliferation requires nutrients, energy, and biosynthetic activity to duplicate all macromolecular components during each passage through the cell cycle. It is therefore not surprising thatExpand
Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy in higher eukaryotes
Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoringExpand
Bad, a heterodimeric partner for Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, displaces bax and promotes cell death
To extend the mammalian cell death pathway, we screened for further Bcl-2 interacting proteins. Both yeast two-hybrid screening and lambda expression cloning identified a novel interacting protein,Expand
Beyond aerobic glycolysis: Transformed cells can engage in glutamine metabolism that exceeds the requirement for protein and nucleotide synthesis
Tumor cell proliferation requires rapid synthesis of macromolecules including lipids, proteins, and nucleotides. Many tumor cells exhibit rapid glucose consumption, with most of the glucose-derivedExpand
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