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Sites of synthesis, translocation and accumulation of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxides in Senecio vulgaris L.
TLDR
The polar, salt-like N-oxides, which are often considered to be artifacts, were found to be the real products of pyrrolizidine-alkaloid biosynthesis as well as the physiological forms for long-distance transport, tissue-specific distribution and cellular accumulation.
Disentangling Food Quality from Resistance against Parasitoids: Diet Choice by a Generalist Caterpillar
TLDR
It is experimentally demonstrate that the value of enemy‐reduced space supersedes that of food quality in determining the diet and host preference of the polyphagous woolly bear caterpillar Grammia geneura (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).
Identification and characterization of JWH-122 used as new ingredient in "Spice-like" herbal incenses.
TLDR
The active component of "Lava red", obtained from German internet shops, was isolated by silica gel column chromatography and the structure was elucidated by NMR methods to obtain a complete dataset of the physico-chemical properties of the molecule.
Frequent gain and loss of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the evolution of Senecio section Jacobaea (Asteraceae).
TLDR
Differences in PA profiles in Senecio can not be explained by the gain and loss of PA specific genes, but rather by a transient switch-off and switch-on of the expression of genes encoding PA pathway-specific enzymes.
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in pollen and pollen products.
TLDR
1,2-unsaturated PA content of pollen products is expressed in terms of a single sum parameter and no background information such as foraged plants, pollen analysis, etc. was needed to analyze the samples.
Distribution, biosynthesis and turnover of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Cynoglossum officinale
TLDR
Shoot to root transport of PAs was observed, which indicated that PAs are transported via the phloem and reallocated from the ageing leaves into the newly formed, youngest leaves.
Acquisition, transformation and maintenance of plant pyrrolizidine alkaloids by the polyphagous arctiid Grammia geneura.
TLDR
Evidence is presented that during this processing the necine base (trachelanthamidine) is converted into its 7-(R)-hydroxy derivative (turneforcidine), indicating the ability of G. geneura to introduce a hydroxyl group at C-7 of a necine bases derived from plant acquired alkaloids.
Specific recognition, detoxification and metabolism of pyrrolizidine alkaloids by the polyphagous arctiid Estigmene acrea.
TLDR
E. acrea appears to be specifically adapted to exploit pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants as "drug source" but not as a food source.
Biochemical strategy of sequestration of pyrrolizidine alkaloids by adults and larvae of chrysomelid leaf beetles.
TLDR
The biochemical mechanisms of sequestration of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxides in Chysomelidae leaf beetles and Lepidoptera are compared with respect to toxicity, safe storage and defensive role of the alkaloids.
Sequestration, metabolism and partial synthesis of tertiary pyrrolizidine alkaloids by the neotropical leaf-beetle Platyphora boucardi.
TLDR
The chemical defense mediated by plant acquired pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the taxonomically related palaearctic Oreina and neotropical Platyphora leaf beetles have been evolved independently, since the biochemical mechanisms of storing and maintaining the alkaloid mechanisms is completely different in the two genera.
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