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Mechanical work in terrestrial locomotion: two basic mechanisms for minimizing energy expenditure.
The work done during each step to lift and to reaccelerate (in the forward direction) and center of mass has been measured during locomotion in bipeds (rhea and turkey), quadrupeds (dogs,Expand
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Energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. I. Metabolic energy consumption as a function of speed and body size in birds and mammals.
This series of four papers investigates the link between the energetics and the mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. Two experimental variables are used throughout the study: speed and body size.Expand
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Hopping frequency in humans: a test of how springs set stride frequency in bouncing gaits.
The storage and recovery of elastic energy in muscle-tendon springs is important in running, hopping, trotting, and galloping. We hypothesized that animals select the stride frequency at which theyExpand
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Muscular Force in Running Turkeys: The Economy of Minimizing Work
Running economy is improved by muscles that act as active struts rather than working machines. Expand
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Speed, stride frequency and energy cost per stride: how do they change with body size and gait?
In this study we investigate how speed and stride frequency change with body size. We use this information to define 'equivalent speeds' for animals of different size and to explore the factorsExpand
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Scaling of energetic cost of running to body size in mammals.
TAYLOR, C. RICHARD, KNUT SCHMIDT-NIELSEN, AND JACOB L. RAAB, Scaling of energetic cost of running to body size in mammals. Am. J. Physiol. 219(4) : 1104-l 107. 1970.-The purpose of this study was toExpand
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The concept of symmorphosis: a testable hypothesis of structure-function relationship.
The hypothesis that, in biological organisms, structural design is matched to functional demand is difficult to test because it is largely based on anecdotal evidence suggesting economic design. TheExpand
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Energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion.
This review addresses a simple question: How do muscles use the energy they consume during terrestrial locomotion? Using a comparative approach, it was found that the mass-specific rate of metabolicExpand
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Energetic Cost of Generating Muscular Force During Running: A Comparison of Large and Small Animals
The energetic cost of generating muscular force was studied by measuring the energetic cost of carrying loads in rats, dogs, humans, and horses for loads ranging between 7 and 27% of body mass.Expand
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Scaling Stride Frequency and Gait to Animal Size: Mice to Horses
The stride frequency at which animals of different size change from one gait to another (walk, trot, gallop) changes in a regular manner with body mass. The speed at the transition from trot toExpand
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