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Sonic hedgehog mediates the polarizing activity of the ZPA
TLDR
A vertebrate gene related to the Drosophila segment polarity gene hedgehog, which is expressed specifically in the ZPA and in other regions of the embryo, that is capable of polarizing limbs in grafting experiments is isolated. Expand
Regulation of Rate of Cartilage Differentiation by Indian Hedgehog and PTH-Related Protein
TLDR
In vitro application of Hedgehog or P THrP protein to normal or PTHrP (−/−) limb explants demonstrated that PTHRP mediates the effects of Ihh through the formation of a negative feedback loop that modulates the rate of chondrocyte differentiation. Expand
p63 is essential for regenerative proliferation in limb, craniofacial and epithelial development
TLDR
It is reported that mice homozygous for a disrupted p63 gene have major defects in their limb, craniofacial and epithelial development, and results indicate that p63 is critical for maintaining the progenitor-cell populations that are necessary to sustain epithelialDevelopment and morphogenesis. Expand
Expression of Cre recombinase in the developing mouse limb bud driven by a Prxl enhancer
Summary: We have used a Prx1 limb enhancer to drive expression of Cre Recombinase in transgenic mice. This regulatory element leads to Cre expression throughout the early limb bud mesenchyme and in aExpand
Evidence for an Expansion-Based Temporal Shh Gradient in Specifying Vertebrate Digit Identities
TLDR
The zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) in the posterior limb bud produces Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) protein, which plays a critical role in establishing distinct fates along the anterior-posterior axis, and recombinase base mapping in the mouse determines the ultimate fate of the Shh-producing cells. Expand
Sonic hedgehog and Fgf-4 act through a signaling cascade and feedback loop to integrate growth and patterning of the developing limb bud
TLDR
The authors' results indicate that Sonic hedgehog initiates expression of secondary signaling molecules, including Bmp-2 in the mesoderm and Fgf-4 in the ectoderm, which provide a basis for understanding the integration of growth and patterning in the developing limb. Expand
Biochemical evidence that Patched is the Hedgehog receptor
TLDR
Binding studies using labelled Shh that strongly suggest that the Hh receptor is encoded by patched (ptc), a gene first identified in genetic screens in Drosophila4. Expand
Analysis of the tendon cell fate using Scleraxis, a specific marker for tendons and ligaments.
TLDR
Scleraxis, a bHLH transcription factor, is a highly specific marker for all the connective tissues that mediate attachment of muscle to bone in chick and mouse, including the limb tendons, and it is shown that early scleraxis expression marks the progenitor cell populations for these tissues. Expand
The RNaseIII enzyme Dicer is required for morphogenesis but not patterning of the vertebrate limb.
TLDR
Using transgenes to drive Cre expression in discrete regions of the limb mesoderm, it is found that removal of Dicer results in the loss of processed miRNAs, and Dicer is required for the formation of normal mouse limbs. Expand
A molecular pathway determining left-right asymmetry in chick embryogenesis
TLDR
This work describes the expression patterns of three genes involved in LR determination in chick embryos: activin receptor IIa, Sonic hedgehog (Shh), and cNR-1 (related to the mouse gene nodal) and identifies a cascade of molecular asymmetry that determines morphological LR asymmetry in the chick embryo. Expand
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