• Publications
  • Influence
Gender differences in self-esteem: a meta-analysis.
Two analyses were conducted to examine gender differences in global self-esteem. In analysis I, a computerized literature search yielded 216 effect sizes, representing the testing of 97,121Expand
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Compartmentalization of positive and negative self-knowledge: keeping bad apples out of the bunch.
  • C. Showers
  • Medicine
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1992
Three studies examined whether categorical organization of knowledge about the self explains variance in self-esteem and depression beyond that which is accounted for by sheer amount of positive orExpand
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A review of paradoxical performance effects: Choking under pressure in sports and mental tests
Paradoxical performance effects (‘choking under pressure’) are defined as the occurrence of inferior performance despite striving and incentives for superior performance. Experimental demonstrationsExpand
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The dynamic self: how the content and structure of the self-concept change with mood.
Change in the content and structure of the self-concept was examined in a 2-year prospective study of depression. A self-descriptive card-sorting task measured the self-concepts of participants whoExpand
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Organization of knowledge about a relationship partner: Implications for liking and loving
In close relationships, the association between negative beliefs about a partner and loving was found to be moderated by how that negative knowledge was organized. In general, evaluativelyExpand
  • 64
  • 10
The motivational and emotional consequences of considering positive or negative possibilities for an upcoming event.
  • C. Showers
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1 September 1992
The hypothesis that attention to negative possibilities for an upcoming event can have advantages for performance in comparison with a more optimistic approach was examined in 2 studies. Focus ofExpand
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Organization of self-knowledge: implications for recovery from sad mood.
In compartmentalized self-organization, positive and negative self-beliefs are separated into distinct categories (i.e., self-aspects), so that each self-aspect contains primarily positive orExpand
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Compartmentalization of positive and negative self-knowledge: keeping bad apples out of the bunch
Three studies examined whether categorical organization of knowledge about the self explains variance in self-esteem and depression beyond that which is accounted for by sheer amount of positive orExpand
  • 124
  • 5
Self-Structure and Self-Esteem Stability: The Hidden Vulnerability of Compartmentalization
The present studies examined the association between self-concept structure and stability of self-esteem. In two daily diary studies, evaluative integration (organizing positively and negativelyExpand
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  • PDF
Distinguishing defensive pessimism from depression: Negative expectations and positive coping mechanisms
Anticipatory thoughts and feelings of defensively pessimistic and moderately depressed college students were compared in order to identify factors that distinguish effective strategies of negativeExpand
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