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Risk factors and comorbidities in primary biliary cirrhosis: A controlled interview‐based study of 1032 patients
TLDR
Environmental factors, possibly including infectious agents through urinary tract infections or chemicals contained in cigarette smoke, may induce PBC in genetically susceptible individuals and exogenous estrogens may also contribute to explain the female predominance of the disease.
Probiotics and immunity
TLDR
Promising results have been obtained with probiotics in the treatment of human inflammatory diseases of the intestine and in the prevention and treatment of atopic eczema in neonates and infants, however, the findings are too variable to allow firm conclusions as to the effectiveness of specific Probiotics in these conditions.
European Population Substructure: Clustering of Northern and Southern Populations
TLDR
Using a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel, population structure in a diverse group of Europeans and European Americans was observed, with a consistent and reproducible distinction between “northern” and “southern" European population groups.
Analysis and Application of European Genetic Substructure Using 300 K SNP Information
TLDR
Two sets of European substructure ancestry informative markers (ESAIMs) were identified that provide substantial substructure information that can be used for improving error rates in association testing of candidate genes and in replication studies of WGA scans.
Primary biliary cirrhosis in monozygotic and dizygotic twins: genetics, epigenetics, and environment.
TLDR
The concordance rate of PBC in identical twins is among the highest reported in autoimmunity, and discordant pairs were identified, indicating that either epigenetic factors and/or environment play a critical role.
Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis react against a ubiquitous xenobiotic‐metabolizing bacterium
TLDR
It is proposed that N. aromaticivorans is a candidate for the induction of PBC, based on protein homology, capacity to metabolize xenobiotics as well as modulate estrogens, its presence in feces, and specific immunologic response.
The epigenetics of autoimmunity
TLDR
Data support the impact of epigenetic changes in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases, in some cases based on mechanistical observations.
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake is associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a rural Thai population
TLDR
Higher amounts of individual MSG consumption are associated with the risk of having the metabolic syndrome and being overweight independent of other major determinants.
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