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Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms
TLDR
These findings explain how various drugs affect sleep and wakefulness, and provide the basis for a wide range of environmental influences to shape wake–sleep cycles into the optimal pattern for survival. Expand
Narcolepsy in orexin Knockout Mice Molecular Genetics of Sleep Regulation
TLDR
It is proposed that orexin regulates sleep/wakefulness states, and that Orexin knockout mice are a model of human narcolepsy, a disorder characterized primarily by rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dysregulation. Expand
Differential expression of orexin receptors 1 and 2 in the rat brain
TLDR
The differential distribution of oxin receptors is consistent with the proposed multifaceted roles of orexin in regulating homeostasis and may explain the unique role of the OX2R receptor in regulating sleep state stability. Expand
Distributions of leptin receptor mRNA isoforms in the rat brain
TLDR
The localization of leptin receptor mRNA in extrahypothalamic sites in the thalamus and cerebellum suggests that leptin may act on specific sensory and motor systems. Expand
The sleep switch: hypothalamic control of sleep and wakefulness
TLDR
A model is proposed in which wake- and sleep-promoting neurons inhibit each other, which results in stable wakefulness and sleep and disruption of wake- or sleep- Promoting pathways results in behavioral state instability. Expand
A putative flip–flop switch for control of REM sleep
TLDR
A brainstem flip–flop switch is proposed, consisting of mutually inhibitory REM-off and REM-on areas in the mesopontine tegmentum that contain GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)-ergic neurons that heavily innervate the other. Expand
Expression of ghrelin receptor mRNA in the rat and the mouse brain
TLDR
Ghrelin is a hormone that stimulates growth hormone secretion and signals energy insufficiency via interaction with its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), and its distribution in the CNS, as assessed by in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH), has been described previously in a few mammalian species. Expand
Efferent projections of the infralimbic cortex of the rat
TLDR
This work has combined anterograde tracing with Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA‐L) and retrograde tracing with wheat germ aggut inin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA‐HRP) to determine the efferent projections from the ILC. Expand
Chemically defined projections linking the mediobasal hypothalamus and the lateral hypothalamic area
TLDR
Projections from populations of leptin‐responsive neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus to MCH and ORX cells in the LHA may link peripheral metabolic cues with the cortical mantle and may play a critical role in the regulation of feeding behavior and body weight. Expand
From Lesions to Leptin Hypothalamic Control of Food Intake and Body Weight
TLDR
The availability of these molecular tools, coupled with tract tracing, has resulted in striking progress in dissecting an extensive network of hypothalamic circuitry that regulates feeding, and the outline of the hypothalamic system for regulation of feeding is now more clear. Expand
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