• Publications
  • Influence
Antiviral Actions of Interferons
  • C. Samuel
  • Medicine, Biology
    Clinical Microbiology Reviews
  • 1 October 2001
SUMMARY Tremendous progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of the antiviral actions of interferons (IFNs), as well as strategies evolved by viruses to antagonize the actions of
Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are both antiviral and proviral.
  • C. Samuel
  • Biology, Medicine
    Virology
  • 15 March 2011
TLDR
Among the outcomes of A-to-I editing are biochemical changes that affect how viruses interact with their hosts, changes that can lead to either enhanced or reduced virus growth and persistence depending upon the specific virus.
Expression and regulation by interferon of a double-stranded-RNA-specific adenosine deaminase from human cells: evidence for two forms of the deaminase
TLDR
The results establish that K88 encodes an IFN-inducible ds RNA-specific adenosine deaminase and suggest that at least two forms of dsRNA-specificAdenosineDeaminase occur in human cells.
Antiviral actions of interferon. Interferon-regulated cellular proteins and their surprisingly selective antiviral activities.
  • C. Samuel
  • Biology, Medicine
    Virology
  • 1 July 1991
TLDR
The relative sensitivity of a virus to the inhibitory action of IFN is governed by the qualitative nature and quantitative amount of the individual IFN-regulated cell proteins that may collectively contribute to the inhibition of virus replication.
RNA editing enzyme adenosine deaminase is a restriction factor for controlling measles virus replication that also is required for embryogenesis
TLDR
In contrast to infection with MV, p150 disruption had no effect on vesicular stomatitis virus, reovirus, or lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus replication but protected against CPE resulting from infection with Newcastle disease virus, Sendai virus, canine distemper virus, and influenza A virus.
Adenovirus VAI RNA antagonizes the antiviral action of interferon by preventing activation of the interferon-induced eIF-2α kinase
TLDR
The VAI RNA of adenovirus is a small, RNA polymerase III-transcribed species required for efficient translation of host cell and viral mRNAs late after infection and can be reproduced in extracts of interferon-treated cells.
Human RNA-specific adenosine deaminase ADAR1 transcripts possess alternative exon 1 structures that initiate from different promoters, one constitutively active and the other interferon inducible.
  • C. George, C. Samuel
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
  • 13 April 1999
TLDR
The results suggest that two promoters, one IFN inducible and the other not, initiate transcription of the ADAR1 gene, and that alternative splicing of unique exon 1 structures to a common exon 2 junction generates RNA transcripts with the deduced coding capacity for either the constitutively expressed approximately 110-kDa ADar1 protein (exon 1B) or the interferon-induced approximately 150-k Da ADAR 1 protein (Exon 1A).
Oncogenic potential of TAR RNA binding protein TRBP and its regulatory interaction with RNA‐dependent protein kinase PKR
TLDR
It is shown that TRBP is a cellular down‐regulator of PKR function, and this work's results are consistent with the notion that intracellularPKR function contributes physiologically towards regulating cellular proliferation.
Dynamic landscape and regulation of RNA editing in mammals
TLDR
This work curated an extensive set of ADAR1 and ADAR2 targets and showed that many editing sites display distinct tissue-specific regulation by the ADAR enzymes in vivo, suggesting stronger cis-directed regulation of RNA editing for most sites, although the small set of conserved coding sites is under stronger trans-regulation.
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