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Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by cytokines: actions and mechanisms of action.
Glucocorticoids are hormone products of the adrenal gland, which have long been recognized to have a profound impact on immunologic processes. The communication between immune and neuroendocrineExpand
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Effect of stress on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis: peripheral and central mechanisms.
This article reviews the mechanisms believed to mediate stress-induced inhibition of reproductive functions and the anatomical sites at which these effects take place. Particular emphasis is placedExpand
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Interleukin-1 stimulates the secretion of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor.
There is now evidence that the immune system, during times of infectious challenge, can stimulate the secretion of glucocorticoids, the adrenal steroids that mediate important aspects of the responseExpand
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Potent, structurally constrained agonists and competitive antagonists of corticotropin-releasing factor.
Predictive methods, physicochemical measurements, and structure activity relationship studies suggest that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF; corticoliberin), its family members, and competitiveExpand
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Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRF) and Endocrine Responses to Stress: CRF Receptors, Binding Protein, and Related Peptides
Abstract Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a 41 -amino acid neuropeptide, which is recognized as a critical mediator of complimentary, stress-related endocrine, autonomic, and behavioralExpand
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Corticotropin-releasing factor: actions on the sympathetic nervous system and metabolism.
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) injected into the brains of rats produces hyperglycemia and an increase in plasma concentrations of glucagon, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. NeitherExpand
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Chemical and biological characterization of corticotropin releasing factor.
Publisher Summary Hypothalamus liberates a substance into the hypophysial portal blood that stimulates the adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) activity of the pituitary. This chapter discusses theExpand
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Ontogeny of the stress response in the rat: role of the pituitary and the hypothalamus.
The neonatal rat shows a period of decreased responsiveness to noxious stimuli during the first 3 weeks of life, but the nature of this impairment is still controversial. To test the functionality ofExpand
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