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Gender, Status, and Leadership
More than a trait of individuals, gender is an institutionalized system of social practices. The gender system is deeply entwined with social hierarchy and leadership because gender stereotypes
Framed by Gender
Unpacking the Gender System
According to the perspective developed in this article, widely shared, hegemonic cultural beliefs about gender and their impact in what the authors call “social relational” contexts are among the
The Social Construction of Status Value: Gender and Other Nominal Characteristics
This article describes micro-macro processes through which simple structural conditions cause a nominal characteristic such as gender or race to acquire independent status value. These conditions are
Legitimacy as a Social Process
To gain an in-depth understanding of legitimacy as a general social process, we review contemporary approaches to legitimacy within two areas of sociology: social psychology and organizations. A
How can we explain the persistence of gender hierarchy over transformnations in its socioeconomic base? Part of the answer lies in the mediation of gender inequality by taken-for-granted
Framed by Gender: How Gender Inequality Persists in the Modern World
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 1. The puzzle of persistence 2. A primary frame for organizing social relations 3. : Cultural beliefs and the gendering of social relations 4. Gendering at work 5. Gender at home 6.
Framed Before We Know It
In this article, I argue that gender is a primary cultural frame for coordinating behavior and organizing social relations. I describe the implications for understanding how gender shapes social
Expectation states theory.
Expectation states theory is, in many ways, a textbook example of a theoretical research program. It is deductive, programmatic, formalized mathematically, cumulative, precise, and predictive; and
Motherhood as a Status Characteristic
We present evidence that many of the disadvantaging effects that motherhood has on women's workplace outcomes derive from the devalued social status attached to the task of being a primary caregiver.