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Characterization of a 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase which phosphorylates and activates protein kinase Bα
BACKGROUND Protein kinase B (PKB), also known as c-Akt, is activated rapidly when mammalian cells are stimulated with insulin and growth factors, and much of the current interest in this enzyme stems… Expand
Dual role of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate in the activation of protein kinase B.
Chromatographic separation of brain cytosol revealed a kinase activity that phosphorylated and activated PKB only in the presence of phosphatidylinositol-3, 4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3]. Expand
3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1): structural and functional homology with the Drosophila DSTPK61 kinase
Human PDK1 is homologous to the Drosophila protein kinase DSTPK61, which has been implicated in the regulation of sex differentiation, oogenesis and spermatogenesis and is likely to mediate the activation of PKB by insulin or growth factors. Expand
Protein kinase B kinases that mediate phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent activation of protein kinase B.
Four isoforms of these PKB kinases were purified from sheep brain and their heterologous expression augments receptor activation of PKB, which suggests they are the primary signal transducers that enable PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 or PTDIns- (3, 4)P2 to activate PKB and hence to control signaling pathways regulating cell survival, glucose uptake, and glycogen metabolism. Expand
The chemical synthesis of oligo- and poly-nucleotides by the phosphotriester approach
- C. Reese
The benzoylation of uracil and thymine
Abstract Uracil and thymine react with benzoyl chloride in acetonitrile-pyridine solution at room temperature to give first their 1- N -benzoyl (2b and 3b) and then their 1- N , 3- N -dibenzoyl… Expand
The 9-phenylxanthen-9-yl protecting group
9-Chloro-9-phenylxanthene (4b) reacts with the 5′-hydroxy groups of 2′-deoxyribonucleosides (2)(and their N-acyl derivatives) to give crystalline 9-phenylxanthen-9-yl (pixyl) derivatives (5) in… Expand
Solution phase synthesis of ISIS 2922 (Vitravene) by the modified H-phosphonate approach
The synthesis of Vitravene, a 21-mer oligonucleotide phosphorothioate (d[Gp(s)Cp(s)Gp(s)Tp(s)Tp(s)Tp(s)Gp(s)Cp(s)Tp(s)Cp(s)Tp(s)Tp(s)Cp(s)Tp(s)Tp(s)Cp(s)Tp(s)Tp(s)Gp(s)Cp(s)G]) by the modified… Expand
Reaction between 2,2′-anhydro-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil and thiolate ions
2,2′-Anhydro-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil [2,2′-anhydrouridine](1a) reacts with the conjugate bases of thiophenol, toluene-4-thiol, ethanethiol, propane-1-thiol, 2-methylpropane-2-thiol and… Expand