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The Tripartite Type III Secreton of Shigella flexneri Inserts Ipab and Ipac into Host Membranes
Bacterial type III secretion systems serve to translocate proteins into eukaryotic cells, requiring a secreton and a translocator for proteins to pass the bacterial and host membranes. We used theExpand
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Nonpolar mutagenesis of the ipa genes defines IpaB, IpaC, and IpaD as effectors of Shigella flexneri entry into epithelial cells.
A 31-kb fragment of the large virulence plasmid of Shigella flexneri is necessary for bacterial entry into epithelial cells in vitro. One locus of this fragment encodes the IpaA, -B, -C, and -DExpand
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Structure and composition of the Shigella flexneri‘needle complex’, a part of its type III secreton
Type III secretion systems (TTSSs or secretons), essential virulence determinants of many Gram‐negative bacteria, serve to translocate proteins directly from the bacteria into the host cytoplasm.Expand
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The virulence plasmid pWR100 and the repertoire of proteins secreted by the type III secretion apparatus of Shigella flexneri
Bacteria of Shigella spp. are the causative agents of shigellosis. The virulence traits of these pathogens include their ability to enter into epithelial cells and induce apoptosis in macrophages.Expand
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The secretion of the Shigella flexneri Ipa invasins is activated by epithelial cells and controlled by IpaB and IpaD.
Shigella species are enteropathogens that invade epithelial cells of the human colon. Entry into epithelial cells is triggered by the IpaB, IpaC and IpaD proteins which are translocated into theExpand
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The Shigella flexneri effector OspG interferes with innate immune responses by targeting ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes.
Bacteria of Shigella spp. are responsible for shigellosis in humans. They use a type III secretion system to inject effector proteins into host cells and induce their entry into epithelial cells orExpand
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The various and varying roles of specific chaperones in type III secretion systems.
The type III secretion pathway is used by numerous Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria to deliver proteins within the membrane or the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells with which these bacteria interact.Expand
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Regulatory cascade controls virulence in Vibrio cholerae.
Expression of more than 17 virulence genes in Vibrio cholerae is under the coordinate control of the ToxR protein. ToxR is a transmembrane protein that binds to and activates the promoter of theExpand
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An injected bacterial effector targets chromatin access for transcription factor NF-κB to alter transcription of host genes involved in immune responses
Phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10 increases chromatin accessibility to transcription factor NF-κB on a subset of genes involved in immune responses. Here we report that a bacterial pathogenExpand
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Type III secretion effectors of the IpaH family are E3 ubiquitin ligases.
Many bacteria pathogenic for plants or animals, including Shigella spp., which is responsible for shigellosis in humans, use a type III secretion apparatus to inject effector proteins into hostExpand
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