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Neuroglial activation and neuroinflammation in the brain of patients with autism
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired communication and social interaction and may be accompanied by mental retardation and epilepsy. Its cause remains unknown, despiteExpand
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Knockout of Glutamate Transporters Reveals a Major Role for Astroglial Transport in Excitotoxicity and Clearance of Glutamate
Three glutamate transporters have been identified in rat, including astroglial transporters GLAST and GLT-1 and a neuronal transporter EAAC1. Here we demonstrate that inhibition of the synthesis ofExpand
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An adverse property of a familial ALS-linked SOD1 mutation causes motor neuron disease characterized by vacuolar degeneration of mitochondria
Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause a subset of cases of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Four lines of mice accumulating one of these mutant proteins (G37R) develop severe,Expand
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Extensive astrocyte infection is prominent in human immunodeficiency virus–associated dementia
Astrocyte infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is considered rare, so astrocytes are thought to play a secondary role in HIV neuropathogenesis. By combining double immunohistochemistry,Expand
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Microglial Activation and Increased Microglial Density Observed in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Autism
BACKGROUND In the neurodevelopmental disorder autism, several neuroimmune abnormalities have been reported. However, it is unknown whether microglial somal volume or density are altered in the cortexExpand
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HIV neuropathy: Insights in the pathology of HIV peripheral nerve disease
Abstract  HIV‐associated neuropathies (HIV‐N) have become the most frequent neurological disorder associated with HIV infection. The most common forms of HIV‐N are the distal sensory polyneuropathyExpand
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Peripheral neuropathy has emerged as the most common neurological complication of HIV infection [1– 4]. There are several discrete types of HIV-associated neuropathy, which can be classifiedExpand
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The Neurobiology of Childhood Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Almost to the century after the initial clinical description of childhood spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) (Werdnig, 1891) a new era of investigation into the nature of SMAwas inaugurated when ConradExpand
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Immunity, neuroglia and neuroinflammation in autism
Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder of early onset that is highly variable in its clinical presentation. Although the causes of autism in most patients remain unknown, several lines ofExpand
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Ventral root avulsion: An experimental model of death of adult motor neurons
The present study proposes a reproducible model of experimental degeneration of adult motor neurons in the rat. Avulsion of ventral roots in the adult lumbar cord transects motor axons at the rootExpand
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