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Dickkopf-1 is a member of a new family of secreted proteins and functions in head induction
Dkk-1 is a potent antagonist of Wnt signalling, suggesting that dkk genes encode a family of secreted Wnt inhibitors.
The complex world of WNT receptor signalling
- C. Niehrs
- BiologyNature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology
- 1 December 2012
What emerges is an intricate network of receptors that form higher-order ligand–receptor complexes routing downstream signalling that is regulated both extracellularly by agonists such as R-spondin and intracellulary by post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, proteolytic processing and endocytosis.
LDL-receptor-related protein 6 is a receptor for Dickkopf proteins
It is shown that LDL-receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) is a specific, high-affinity receptor for Dkk1 and Dkk2, illustrating the modulation of LRP signalling by antagonists.
Wnt Induces LRP6 Signalosomes and Promotes Dishevelled-Dependent LRP6 Phosphorylation
It is proposed that Wnts induce coclustering of receptors and Dvl in LRP6-signalosomes, which in turn triggers LRP 6 phosphorylation to promote Axin recruitment and β-catenin stabilization.
Function and biological roles of the Dickkopf family of Wnt modulators
- C. Niehrs
- 4 December 2006
Dickkopf (Dkk) genes comprise an evolutionary conserved small gene family of four members (Dkk1-4) and a unique Dkk3-related gene, Dkkl1 (soggy). They encode secreted proteins that typically…
Antagonizing the Spemann organizer: role of the homeobox gene Xvent‐1.
- V. Gawantka, H. Delius, K. Hirschfeld, C. Blumenstock, C. Niehrs
- BiologyThe EMBO journal
- 1 December 1995
The results suggest that Xvent‐1 functions in a ventral signaling pathway that maintains the ventral mesodermal state and antagonizes the Spemann organizer.
Kremen proteins are Dickkopf receptors that regulate Wnt/beta-catenin signalling.
Kremen1 and Kremen2 are components of a membrane complex modulating canonical Wnt signalling through LRP6 in vertebrates that functionally cooperate with Dkk1 to block Wnt/beta-catenin signalling.
A morphogen gradient of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling regulates anteroposterior neural patterning in Xenopus.
The results indicate that an activity gradient of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling acts as transforming morphogen to pattern the Xenopus central nervous system.
Casein kinase 1 gamma couples Wnt receptor activation to cytoplasmic signal transduction.
The identification of Xenopus Casein kinase 1 gamma (CK1gamma), a membrane-bound member of the CK1 family, and an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that couples Wnt receptor activation to the cytoplasmic signal transduction apparatus are revealed.
Casein kinase 1 γ couples Wnt receptor activation to cytoplasmic signal transduction
The identification of Xenopus Casein kinase 1 γ (CK1γ), a membrane-bound member of the CK1 family is described, revealing an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that couples Wnt receptor activation to the cytoplasmic signal transduction apparatus.