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A method for estimating the probability of adverse drug reactions
The estimation of the probability that a drug caused an adverse clinical event is usually based on clinical judgment. Lack of a method for establishing causality generates large between‐raters andExpand
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Assessment of alcohol withdrawal: the revised clinical institute withdrawal assessment for alcohol scale (CIWA-Ar).
A shortened 10-item scale for clinical quantitation of the severity of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome has been developed. This scale offers an increase in efficiency while at the same time retainingExpand
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A validation study of The Geriatric Depression Scale short form
The validity of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) short form was assessed in a geriatric affective disorders outpatient clinic (N = 116). The GDS was highly correlated with the Montgomery AsbergExpand
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The role of the brain reward system in depression
The goal of this review is to familiarize the reader about the potential involvement of the brain reward system (BRS) in symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The authors introduce a novelExpand
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Functional neuroanatomical substrates of altered reward processing in major depressive disorder revealed by a dopaminergic probe.
CONTEXT The pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) includes disturbances in several neuroanatomical substrates and neurotransmitter systems. The challenge is to elucidate the brainExpand
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Review of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction studies with citalopram
Citalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is N-demethylated to N-desmethylcitalopram partially by CYP2C19 and partially by CYP3A4 and N-desmethylcitalopram is further N-demethylatedExpand
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Probing brain reward system function in major depressive disorder: altered response to dextroamphetamine.
BACKGROUND The state of the brain reward system in major depressive disorder was assessed with dextroamphetamine, which probes the release of dopamine within the mesocorticolimbic system, a majorExpand
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Low endogenous dopamine function in brain predisposes to high alcohol preference and consumption: reversal by increasing synaptic dopamine.
Using inbred strains of mice that differ widely in their innate preference for and consumption of ethanol, we demonstrate, in ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J (C57) mice, decreased dopamine (DA) contentExpand
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Advances in the Diagnosis of Adverse Drug Reactions
The clinician plays a key role in the detection and diagnosis of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The diagnosis of ADRs, however, is a complex task. In the past, there were no systematically appliedExpand
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Patterns of benzodiazepine abuse and dependence.
Summary Patterns of benzodiazepine abuse and dependence are not well known. Data on drug use and other demographic and clinical characteristics were collected in 176 patients consecutively referredExpand
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