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Rapid calculation of radiative heating rates and photodissociation rates in inhomogeneous multiple scattering atmospheres
The solution of the generalized two-stream approximation for radiative transfer in homogeneous multiple scattering atmospheres is extended to vertically inhomogeneous atmospheres in a manner which is
Biogenic Methane, Hydrogen Escape, and the Irreversible Oxidation of Early Earth
TLDR
Expected irreversible oxidation (∼1012 to 1013 moles oxygen per year) may help explain how Earth's surface environment became irreversibly oxidized.
Valley floor climate observations from the McMurdo dry valleys, Antarctica, 1986–2000
[1] Climate observations from the McMurdo dry valleys, East Antarctica are presented from a network of seven valley floor automatic meteorological stations during the period 1986 to 2000. Mean annual
Numerical simulation of the general circulation of the atmosphere of Titan.
TLDR
Diagnostics of the simulated atmospheric circulation underlying the importance of the seasonal cycle and a tentative explanation for the creation and maintenance of the atmospheric superrotation based on a careful angular momentum budget are presented.
Antarctic climate cooling and terrestrial ecosystem response
TLDR
Data from the dry valleys are presented representing evidence of rapid terrestrial ecosystem response to climate cooling in Antarctica, including decreased primary productivity of lakes and declining numbers of soil invertebrates, which poses challenges to models of climate and ecosystem change.
In situ measurements of the physical characteristics of Titan's environment
TLDR
The temperature and density profiles, as determined by the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI), from an altitude of 1,400 km down to the surface were higher than expected and the extent of atmospheric electricity was also hitherto unknown.
Why O2 is required by complex life on habitable planets and the concept of planetary "oxygenation time".
TLDR
It is argued that the oxygenation time is likely to be a key rate-limiting step in the evolution of complex life on other habitable planets, including Earth-like planets orbiting short-lived stars that end their main sequence lives before planetary oxygenation takes place.
Metabolic Activity of Permafrost Bacteria below the Freezing Point
TLDR
It is suggested that the stationary phase, which is generally considered to be reached when the availability of nutrients becomes limiting, was brought on under conditions by the formation of diffusion barriers in the thin layers of unfrozen water known to be present in permafrost soils, the thickness of which depends on temperature.
On the possibility of liquid water on present‐day Mars
Using a validated general circulation model, we determine where and for how long the surface pressure and surface temperature on Mars meet the minimum requirements for the existence of liquid water
Geomicrobiology of subglacial ice above Lake Vostok, Antarctica.
TLDR
Bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA genes revealed low diversity in the gene population, and phylotypes were closely related to extant members of the alpha- and beta-Proteobacteria and the Actinomycetes.
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