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Has the Earth’s sixth mass extinction already arrived?
Differences between fossil and modern data and the addition of recently available palaeontological information influence understanding of the current extinction crisis, and results confirm that current extinction rates are higher than would be expected from the fossil record.
Mass Extinctions and Their Aftermath
In this text the demise of the dinosaurs is put into the proper context of other extinction events and all proposed extinction mechanisms - climate change, meteorite impact, volcanisms - are critically assessed.
Approaching a state shift in Earth’s biosphere
Evidence that the global ecosystem as a whole is approaching a planetary-scale critical transition as a result of human influence is reviewed, highlighting the need to improve biological forecasting by detecting early warning signs of critical transitions.
Recent Synchronous Radiation of a Living Fossil
- N. Nagalingum, C. Marshall, T. Quental, H. Rai, D. Little, S. Mathews
- Geography, Environmental ScienceScience
- 11 November 2011
It is shown that cycads underwent a near synchronous global rediversification beginning in the late Miocene, followed by a slowdown toward the Recent, rejecting the hypothesized role of dinosaurs in generating extant diversity and the designation of today’s cycad species as living fossils.
Molecular systematics of the Canidae.
- R. Wayne, E. Geffen, D. Girman, K. Koepfli, L. Lau, C. Marshall
- BiologySystematic biology
- 1 December 1997
A combined analysis of the mtDNA data and published morphological data provides unexpected support for a monophyletic South American canidae clade, although the homogeneity partition tests indicate significant heterogeneity between the two data sets.
Explaining the Cambrian "Explosion" of Animals
- C. Marshall
- Environmental Science
- 28 April 2006
The Cambrian “explosion” is a unique episode in Earth history, when essentially all the animal phyla first appear in the fossil record and is best understood as being the result of the interplay of the combinatorial bilaterian developmental system and the increase in the number of needs the first bilaterians had to meet as complex ecological interactions developed.
Dating the origin of the Orchidaceae from a fossil orchid with its pollinator
- S. Ramírez, B. Gravendeel, R. Singer, C. Marshall, N. Pierce
- Environmental Science, BiologyNature
- 30 August 2007
An exquisitely preserved orchid pollinarium attached to the mesoscutellum of an extinct stingless bee recovered from Miocene amber in the Dominican Republic, that is 15–20 million years old, constitutes both the first unambiguous fossil of Orchidaceae and an unprecedented direct fossil observation of a plant–pollinator interaction.
Phanerozoic Trends in the Global Diversity of Marine Invertebrates
It has previously been thought that there was a steep Cretaceous and Cenozoic radiation of marine invertebrates. This pattern can be replicated with a new data set of fossil occurrences representing…
Effects of sampling standardization on estimates of Phanerozoic marine diversification
- J. Alroy, C. Marshall, A. Webber
- Environmental Science, GeographyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 15 May 2001
A new database of this kind for the Phanerozoic fossil record of marine invertebrates is introduced and four substantially distinct analytical methods that estimate taxonomic diversity by quantifying and correcting for variation through time in the number and nature of inventories are applied.
A Simple Method for Bracketing Absolute Divergence Times on Molecular Phylogenies Using Multiple Fossil Calibration Points
- C. Marshall
- BiologyThe American Naturalist
- 11 April 2008
A central challenge facing the temporal calibration of molecular phylogenies is finding a quantitative method for estimating maximum age constraints on lineage divergence times and this method, exploiting the fact that the relative branch lengths on the ultrametric tree are proportional to time is provided.