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Corticocortical inhibition in human motor cortex.
In ten normal volunteers, a transcranial magnetic or electric stimulus that was subthreshold for evoking an EMG response in relaxed muscles was used to condition responses evoked by a later, suprathreshold magnetic orElectric test shock to suggest that the suppression was produced by an action on cortical, rather than spinal excitability.
Interhemispheric inhibition of the human motor cortex.
In contrast to the inhibition of test responses evoked by magnetic test stimuli, test responsesevoked in active FDI by a small anodal electric shock were not significantly inhibited by a contralateral magnetic conditioning stimulus, and H reflexes in relaxed forearm flexor muscles were unaffected by conditioning stimuli to the ipsilateral hemisphere.
Postural electromyographic responses in the arm and leg following galvanic vestibular stimulation in man
The difference in latency between the onset of the early component of the response in arm and leg muscles suggests that this part of the responded uses a descending pathway which conducts impulses down the spinal cord with a velocity comparable with that of the fast conducting component ofThe corticospinal tract.
Electric and magnetic stimulation of human motor cortex: surface EMG and single motor unit responses.
1. The effects of different forms of brain stimulation on the discharge pattern of single motor units were examined using the post‐stimulus time histogram (PSTH) technique and by recording the
Validity and reliability of a rating scale for the primary torsion dystonias
The Movement Scale was a valid and reliable indicator of the severity of primary torsion dystonia and was found to be compatible with scores on the Disability Scale.
Mitochondrial Complex I Deficiency in Parkinson's Disease
Results indicated a specific defect of Complex I activity in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease, which adds further support to the proposition that Parkinson’s disease may be due to an environmental toxin with action(s) similar to those of MPTP.
Fronto-striatal cognitive deficits at different stages of Parkinson's disease.
Groups of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, either medicated or unmedicated, were compared with matched groups of normal controls on a computerized battery previously shown to be
New observations on the normal auditory startle reflex in man.
The pattern of recruitment of cranial muscles suggests a brainstem origin for the normal startle response, and studies on the auditory startle reflex in animals are reviewed in the light of this finding.
Alterations in the levels of iron, ferritin and other trace metals in Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases affecting the basal ganglia.
An increase in total iron content appears to be a response to neurodegeneration in affected basal ganglia regions in a number of movement disorders, suggesting an alteration of iron handling in the substantia nigra in PD.
l-Dopa withdrawal in Parkinson's disease selectively impairs cognitive performance in tests sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction
The results are discussed in terms of the fronto-striatal, dopamine dependent nature of some of the cognitive deficits found in PD, but the apparent dopamine-independent nature of deficits in other aspects of cognitive functioning, notably in tests of visual recognition memory and associative learning.