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From Kratom to mitragynine and its derivatives: Physiological and behavioural effects related to use, abuse, and addiction
Kratom (or Ketum) is a psychoactive plant preparation used in Southeast Asia. It is derived from the plant Mitragyna speciosa Korth. Kratom as well as its main alkaloid, mitragynine, currentlyExpand
FGF21 Regulates Sweet and Alcohol Preference.
It is shown that FGF21 administration markedly reduces sweet and alcohol preference in mice and sweet preference in cynomolgus monkeys, raising the possibility that F GF21 administration could affect nutrient preference and other reward behaviors in humans. Expand
Acid sphingomyelinase–ceramide system mediates effects of antidepressant drugs
Lowering ceramide abundance may be a central goal for the future development of antidepressants as the role of the acid sphingomyelinase-ceramide system as a target for antidepressants is investigated. Expand
KLB is associated with alcohol drinking, and its gene product β-Klotho is necessary for FGF21 regulation of alcohol preference
It is shown that brain-specific β-Klotho KO mice have an increased alcohol preference and that FGF21 inhibits alcohol drinking by acting on the brain, suggesting that a liver–brain endocrine axis may play an important role in the regulation of alcohol drinking behavior and provide a unique pharmacologic target for reducing alcohol consumption. Expand
Drugs as instruments: A new framework for non-addictive psychoactive drug use
It is argued that drug instrumentalization behavior may provide a functional adaptation to modern environments based on a historical selection for learning mechanisms that allow the dynamic modification of consummatory behavior. Expand
Serotonin and psychostimulant addiction: Focus on 5-HT1A-receptors
5-HT(1A)-autoreceptors mainly facilitate psychostimulant addiction-related behaviors by a limitation of the 5-HT response in terminal areas, and their complex role in the regulation of the psychostIMulant-induced 5- HT response and subsequent addiction- related behaviors is concluded. Expand
Dissociating effects of cocaine and d-amphetamine on dopamine and serotonin in the perirhinal, entorhinal, and prefrontal cortex of freely moving rats
It is concluded that cocaine and d-amphetamine increase DA and 5-HT levels in PRC and EC largely to the same extent as in the PFC, while comparing the neurochemical responses between the drugs at an equal level of behavioral activation. Expand
Secretory sphingomyelinase in health and disease
Current knowledge regarding the physiology and pathophysiology of S-ASM is summarized, including its sources and distribution, molecular and cellular mechanisms of generation and regulation and relevant in vitro and in vivo studies, to suggest it may be both a promising clinical chemistry marker and a therapeutic target. Expand
High versus low reactivity to a novel environment: behavioural, pharmacological and neurochemical assessments
It is indicated that high and low rearing rats not only differ in their behavioural response to a novel environment, but also in their patterns of behavioural habituation, and with respect to behaviour induced by an anti-cholinergic challenge. Expand
What's conditioned in conditioned place preference?
It is argued that although CPP may appear as an incentive-driven behavior related to secondary reinforcers, it may also be a result of operant conditioning of behavior prevailing at the conditioning site, as an result of conditioned treatment effects. Expand