From Kratom to mitragynine and its derivatives: Physiological and behavioural effects related to use, abuse, and addiction
FGF21 Regulates Sweet and Alcohol Preference.
Acid sphingomyelinase–ceramide system mediates effects of antidepressant drugs
Lowering ceramide abundance may be a central goal for the future development of antidepressants as the role of the acid sphingomyelinase-ceramide system as a target for antidepressants is investigated.
Drugs as instruments: A new framework for non-addictive psychoactive drug use
It is argued that drug instrumentalization behavior may provide a functional adaptation to modern environments based on a historical selection for learning mechanisms that allow the dynamic modification of consummatory behavior.
Serotonin and psychostimulant addiction: Focus on 5-HT1A-receptors
KLB is associated with alcohol drinking, and its gene product β-Klotho is necessary for FGF21 regulation of alcohol preference
- G. Schumann, Chunyu Liu, P. Elliott
- MedicineProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 28 November 2016
It is shown that brain-specific β-Klotho KO mice have an increased alcohol preference and that FGF21 inhibits alcohol drinking by acting on the brain, suggesting that a liver–brain endocrine axis may play an important role in the regulation of alcohol drinking behavior and provide a unique pharmacologic target for reducing alcohol consumption.
What's conditioned in conditioned place preference?
Abuse potential and adverse cognitive effects of mitragynine (kratom)
Findings provide evidence for an addiction potential with cognitive impairments for mitragynine, which suggest its classification as a harmful drug.
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) dependence, withdrawal symptoms and craving in regular users.
A progressive dopaminergic phenotype associated with neurotoxic conversion of α-synuclein in BAC-transgenic rats.
Ageing promoted conversion of both full-length and C-terminally truncated α-synuclein species into insolube and proteinase K-resistant fibres, with strongest accumulation in the striatum, resembling biochemical changes seen in human Parkinson's disease.