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A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome
The genomic data suggest that Neandertals mixed with modern human ancestors some 120,000 years ago, leaving traces of Ne andertal DNA in contemporary humans, suggesting that gene flow from Neand Bertals into the ancestors of non-Africans occurred before the divergence of Eurasian groups from each other.
Genome-wide patterns of selection in 230 ancient Eurasians
A genome-wide scan for selection using ancient DNA is reported, capitalizing on the largest ancient DNA data set yet assembled: 230 West Eurasians who lived between 6500 and 300 bc, including 163 with newly reported data.
Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of two extinct moas clarify ratite evolution
- A. Cooper, C. Lalueza-Fox, Simon Anderson, A. Rambaut, J. Austin, R. Ward
- 8 February 2001
This first molecular view of the break-up of Gondwana provides a new temporal framework for speciation events within other Gondwanan biota and can be used to evaluate competing biogeographical hypotheses.
Targeted Retrieval and Analysis of Five Neandertal mtDNA Genomes
Targeted sequencing improves Neandertal mitochondrial DNA retrieval and reveals low diversity among individuals, and together with analyses of mtDNA protein evolution, these data suggest that the long-term effective population size of Ne andertals was smaller than that of modern humans and extant great apes.
The Derived FOXP2 Variant of Modern Humans Was Shared with Neandertals
The origin of European cattle: evidence from modern and ancient DNA.
- A. Beja-Pereira, D. Caramelli, G. Bertorelle
- Biology, MedicineProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 23 May 2006
Previously undescribed genetic evidence is presented in contrast with this view based on mtDNA sequences from five Italian aurochsen dated between 7,000 and 17,000 years B.P. and >1,000 modern cattle from 51 breeds to suggest the European cattle may represent a more variable and valuable genetic resource than previously realized.
The Beaker Phenomenon and the Genomic Transformation of Northwest Europe
Genome-wide data from 400 Neolithic, Copper Age and Bronze Age Europeans is presented, finding limited genetic affinity between Beaker-complex-associated individuals from Iberia and central Europe, and excludes migration as an important mechanism of spread between these two regions.
Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals
It is concluded that in addition to later interbreeding events, the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains and early modern humans met and interbred, possibly in the Near East, many thousands of years earlier than previously thought.
Evidence for a genetic discontinuity between Neandertals and 24,000-year-old anatomically modern Europeans
- D. Caramelli, C. Lalueza-Fox, G. Bertorelle
- BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 12 May 2003
Following the most stringent current standards for validation of ancient DNA sequences, it is shown that the mtDNAs of two anatomically modern Homo sapiens sapiens individuals of the Cro-Magnon type dated at about 23 and 25 thousand years ago fall well within the range of variation of today's humans, but differ sharply from the available sequences of the chronologically closer Neandertals.
A recent evolutionary change affects a regulatory element in the human FOXP2 gene.
It is found that the derived allele of this site is less efficient than the ancestral allele in activating transcription from a reporter construct, and is a plausible candidate for having caused a recent selective sweep in the FOXP2 gene.