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Separation and characterization of saponins with adjuvant activity from Quillaja saponaria Molina cortex.
Several distinct saponins were demonstrated to boost antibody levels by 100-fold or more when used in mouse immunizations with the Ag BSA and beef liver cytochrome b5, and vary considerably in their toxicity, as assessed by lethality in mice.
Induction of Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 by a DNA Vaccine Formulated with QS-21 Saponin Adjuvant via Intramuscular and Intranasal Routes
The results suggest that the intranasal route of DNA immunization is more efficient than the intramuscular route in inducing mucosal immunity mediated by sIgA and mesenteric lymphocytes.
Saponins as vaccine adjuvants.
  • C. Kensil
  • Biology
    Critical reviews in therapeutic drug carrier…
  • 1996
Responses due to specific saponins of saponin preparations, effect of formulation, structure/function studies, and use in different preclinical and clinical vaccine applications are reviewed.
Structure-function relationship among Quillaja saponins serving as excipients for nasal and ocular delivery of insulin.
DS-1 has emerged as an interesting candidate for inclusion in an eyedrop or nosedrop formulation because it was significantly more potent than DS-2 in stimulating the absorption of insulin and does not trigger an immune response when administered to animals.
QS-21: a water-soluble triterpene glycoside adjuvant.
QS-21 has been shown to enhance antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to subunit antigens, as well as DNA vaccines in animal models, and acts as an immunostimulatory adjuvant, eliciting production of immunomodulatory cytokines, and not as an antigen depot.
Saponin adjuvant enhancement of antigen-specific immune responses to an experimental HIV-1 vaccine.
The ability of QS-21 to augment both antibody and cell-mediated immune responses suggests that this adjuvant could be a valuable component in subunit vaccines.