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Insulin signalling and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism
The epidemic of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In both disorders, tissues such as muscle, fat and liver become less…
Critical nodes in signalling pathways: insights into insulin action
- C. Taniguchi, B. Emanuelli, C. Kahn
- Computer ScienceNature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology
- 1 February 2006
The concept of 'critical nodes' is used to define the important junctions in these pathways and illustrate their unique role using insulin signalling as a model system.
Control of hepatic gluconeogenesis through the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1
The results implicate PGC-1 as a key modulator of hepatic gluconeogenesis and as a central target of the insulin–cAMP axis in liver.
Coordinated reduction of genes of oxidative metabolism in humans with insulin resistance and diabetes: Potential role of PGC1 and NRF1
- M. Patti, A. Butte, L. Mandarino
- Biology, MedicineProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 27 June 2003
It is demonstrated that insulin resistance and DM associate with reduced expression of multiple nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1)-dependent genes encoding key enzymes in oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial function.
Developmental Origin of Fat: Tracking Obesity to Its Source
Suppression of Aging in Mice by the Hormone Klotho
It is shown that overexpression of Klotho in mice extends life span and it is suggested that Klotha-mediated inhibition of insulin and IGF1 signaling contributes to its anti-aging properties.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
The greatest need is for agents that enhance insulin sensitivity, halt the progressive pancreatic β-cell failure that is characteristic of T2DM and prevent or reverse the microvascular complications.
SIRT 3 regulates mitochondrial fatty-acid oxidation by reversible enzyme deacetylation
It is reported that SIRT3 expression is upregulated during fasting in liver and brown adipose tissues, and acetylation is identified as a novel regulatory mechanism for mitochondrial fatty-acid oxidation and Sirt3 modulates mitochondrial intermediary metabolism and fatty- acid use during fasting.
Antioxidants prevent health-promoting effects of physical exercise in humans
- M. Ristow, K. Zarse, M. Blüher
- Medicine, BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 26 May 2009
Consistent with the concept of mitohormesis, exercise-induced oxidative stress ameliorates insulin resistance and causes an adaptive response promoting endogenous antioxidant defense capacity and supplementation with antioxidants may preclude these health-promoting effects of exercise in humans.