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Detection of intracellular cytokines by flow cytometry.
During the last years it has become increasingly clear that production of most cytokines is not confined to one cell type. Thus, a method to detect cytokines at the single cell level would be aExpand
Interleukin-4, -5, and -6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in normal and asthmatic airways: evidence for the human mast cell as a source of these cytokines.
Human mast cells are identified as a source of IL-4,IL-5, IL-6, and TNF-alpha and add to the view that, along with T cells, mast cells may play an important role in initiating and maintaining the inflammatory response in asthma. Expand
Antitumor Efficacy of Intermittent Treatment Schedules with the Rapamycin Derivative RAD001 Correlates with Prolonged Inactivation of Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase 1 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear
A correlation between the antitumor efficacy of intermittent RAD001 treatment schedules and prolonged S6K1 inactivation in PBMCs is demonstrated and suggest that long-term monitoring of PBMC-derived S 6K1 activity levels could be used for assessing RAD001treatment schedules in cancer patients. Expand
Central role of immunoglobulin (Ig) E in the induction of lung eosinophil infiltration and T helper 2 cell cytokine production: inhibition by a non-anaphylactogenic anti-IgE antibody
It is demonstrated that IgE-dependent mechanisms are important in the induction of a Th2 immune response and the subsequent infiltration of eosinophils into the airways and neutralization of IgE, for example, non- anaphylactogenic anti-IgE mAbs may provide a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of allergic airway disease. Expand
Interleukin 4 instructs uncommitted B lymphocytes to switch to IgGl and IgE
It is shown, by the use of limiting dilution analysis, that IL4 dramatically increases the precursor frequency of IgGl and IgE‐secreting cells with no significant effect on the clone size, clearly suggesting that IL 4 instructs uncommitted B cells to switch to IgGland IgE. Expand
Interferon alpha increases the frequency of interferon gamma-producing human CD4+ T cells
IFN- alpha increases the frequency of IFN-gamma-secreting CD4 Th cells and antagonizes the suppressive effect of IL-4 on IFN -gamma production, indicating that IFn-alpha may favor the induction and maintenance of Th1- like cells and thereby counteract Th2-driven allergic immune responses. Expand
Human peripheral blood basophils primed by interleukin 3 (IL-3) produce IL-4 in response to immunoglobulin E receptor stimulation
Human basophils are an important cellular source of IL-4, and may, therefore, in addition to their inflammatory effector functions, also regulate the differentiation of T helper cells and B cells, in particular in allergic diseases. Expand
Immunolocalization of cytokines in the nasal mucosa of normal and perennial rhinitic subjects. The mast cell as a source of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6 in human allergic mucosal inflammation.
Findings indicate that the mast cell is an important source of preformed cytokines and as such may contribute to the chronicity of the mucosal inflammation that characterizes allergic rhinitis. Expand
Interleukin-4 is required for the induction of lung Th2 mucosal immunity.
IL-4 is central both to the induction of a local Th2 response and to the development of eosinophilic inflammation of the lung, with a sequential involvement of IL-4 and IL-5. Expand
Interleukin 4 is localized to and released by human mast cells
It is proposed that mast cell activation in an allergic response provides a rapid and local pulse of IL-4 into the local environment essential for the triggering of T lymphocytes into sustainedIL-4 production and to initiate inflammatory cell accumulation and activation. Expand