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Phenotypic Mismatches Reveal Escape from Arms-Race Coevolution
The emergent pattern suggests a dynamic in which interacting species experience reciprocal selection that drives arms-race escalation of both prey and predator phenotypes at a subset of localities across the interaction, until the evolution of extreme phenotypes by predators allows snakes to, at least temporarily, escape the arms race. Expand
Toxicity of Dangerous Prey: Variation of Tetrodotoxin Levels Within and Among Populations of the Newt Taricha granulosa
The defensive chemical trait of a prey species, the newt Taricha granulosa, thought to be part of a coevolutionary arms race is quantified. Expand
The Chemical and Evolutionary Ecology of Tetrodotoxin (TTX) Toxicity in Terrestrial Vertebrates
  • C. Hanifin
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Marine drugs
  • 10 March 2010
The taxonomic distribution and evolutionary ecology of TTX in amphibians is reviewed with some attention to the origin ofTTX present in these taxa. Expand
Evolutionary history of a complex adaptation: Tetrodotoxin resistance in salamanders
  • C. Hanifin, W. Gilly
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Evolution; international journal of organic…
  • 1 January 2015
The results suggest that exaptation has played a role in the evolution of the TTX‐bearing phenotype and provide empirical evidence that complex physiological adaptations can arise through the accumulation of beneficial mutations in the coding region of conserved proteins. Expand
Tetrodotoxin levels of the rough-skin newt, Taricha granulosa, increase in long-term captivity.
The stability of TTXoxicity in newts is consistent with other amphibian species where TTX is present and may indicate that exogenous factors play a less important role in TTX toxicity of newts than previously thought. Expand
Parallel Arms Races between Garter Snakes and Newts Involving Tetrodotoxin as the Phenotypic Interface of Coevolution
The existence of apparent parallel arms races between species pairs of garter snakes and their toxic newt prey that indicate independent evolutionary origins of a key phenotype in the interface are reported. Expand
Secretion and regeneration of tetrodotoxin in the rough-skin newt (Taricha granulosa).
Data are consistent with the hypothesis that these newts produce their own TTX and significantly regenerated the levels of TTX in their skin over the next 9 months. Expand
Tetrodotoxin affects survival probability of rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa) faced with TTX-resistant garter snake predators (Thamnophis sirtalis)
This work examined the interaction between the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa), which contains a powerful neurotoxin called tetrodotoxin (TTX), and the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis), and demonstrated the first direct and quantitative demonstration of the antipredator efficacy of TTX. Expand
Tetrodotoxin Levels in Eggs of the Rough-Skin Newt, Taricha granulosa, Are Correlated with Female Toxicity
The lack of correlation between egg size and TTX levels in individual eggs, as well as the low levels of within clutch variation, may indicate that deposition of TTX in eggs of T. granulosa is not linked to the deposition of other egg resources (e.g., lipids or other yolk components). Expand
A predictive model to estimate total skin tetrodotoxin in the newt Taricha granulosa.
We developed a predictive model to estimate the total amount of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the skin of individual newts (Taricha granulosa) based on measures of the amount of TTX present in dorsal skin.Expand