The gut microbiota influences blood-brain barrier permeability in mice
It is shown that germ-free pregnant dams, devoid of maternal microbes, have offspring that show increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier, suggesting that crosstalk between the gut microbiota and the brain, initiated during the intrauterine period, is perpetuated throughout life.
Positron emission tomographic analysis of central D1 and D2 dopamine receptor occupancy in patients treated with classical neuroleptics and clozapine. Relation to extrapyramidal side effects.
- L. Farde, A. Nordström, F. Wiesel, S. Pauli, C. Halldin, G. Sedvall
- Psychology, MedicineArchives of General Psychiatry
- 1 July 1992
This finding indicates that neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal syndromes are related to the degree of central D2 occupancy induced in the basal ganglia of drug-treated schizophrenic patients and demonstrates that clozapine is also "atypical" with respect to the central D1 occupancy in patients.
A PET study of
- L. Farde, N. Ginovart, C. Halldin, Y. Chou, H. Olsson, C. Swahn
- Biology, PsychologyInternational Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
The results support the view that [11C]ß-CIT-FE is a suitable radioligand for clinical studies of the dopamine transporter, in particular for studies requiring short data acquisition or repeated PET measurements on the same day.
Kinetic Analysis of Central [11C]Raclopride Binding to D2-Dopamine Receptors Studied by PET—A Comparison to the Equilibrium Analysis
- L. Farde, L. Eriksson, G. Blomquist, C. Halldin
- Biology, ChemistryJournal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
- 1 October 1989
Examination of [11C]raclopride uptake in brain regions devoid of specific D2-dopamine receptor binding indicated a fourth compartment in which uptake was reversible, nonstereoselective, and nonsaturable in the dose range studied.
Age-related cognitive deficits mediated by changes in the striatal dopamine system.
D(2) receptor binding is a more important factor than chronological age in accounting for variation in cognitive performance across the adult lifespan, and changes in dopamine neurotransmission play an important role in aging-related cognitive decline.
Central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy in relation to antipsychotic drug effects: A double-blind PET study of schizophrenic patients
Distribution of D1- and D2-Dopamine Receptors, and Dopamine and Its Metabolites in the Human Brain
- H. Hall, G. Sedvall, O. Magnusson, J. Kopp, C. Halldin, L. Farde
- Biology, MedicineNeuropsychopharmacology
- 1 December 1994
Both dopamine receptor subtypes, as well as dopamine, HVA and DOPAC, were primarily found in the basal ganglia, and the receptor distribution in the autoradiographic study was consistent with that demonstrated in the living human brain using [11C].
Autoradiographic localization of 5-HT1A receptors in the post-mortem human brain using [3H]WAY-100635 and [11C]WAY-100635
Central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy in schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotic drugs.
Clinical doses of all the currently used classes of antipsychotic drugs cause a substantial blockade of central D2-dopamine receptors in humans, and this effect appears to be selective for the antipsychotics.
Suggested minimal effective dose of risperidone based on PET-measured D2 and 5-HT2A receptor occupancy in schizophrenic patients.
- S. Nyberg, B. Eriksson, G. Oxenstierna, C. Halldin, L. Farde
- Medicine, PsychologyAmerican Journal of Psychiatry
- 1 June 1999
To achieve this, resperidone, 4 mg/day, should be a suitable initial dose for antipsychotic effect with a minimal risk of extrapyramidal side effects in most patients.