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Peptides in the nervous systems of cnidarians: structure, function, and biosynthesis.
The nervous systems of cnidarians.
Using immuno-electronmicroscopy, it is found that the peptides are located in neuronal dense-cored vesicles associated with both synaptic and non-synaptic release sites, which indicate that evolutionarily "old" nervous systems use peptides as transmitters.
FMRFamide immunoreactivity in the nervous system of the medusa Polyorchis penicillatus
The inner nerve ring of the hydrozoan medusa Polyorchis penicillatus contained a moderate number of immunoreactive processes and perikarya, which were distinct from the swimming motor neurons.
Antho-RFamide Immunoreactivity in Neuronal Synaptic and Nonsynaptic Vesicles of Sea Anemones.
The ultrastructural demonstration of Antho-RFamide immunoreactivity in interneuronal synaptic vesicles, together with the immunofluorescence and electrophysiological studies of other investigators, suggest thatAntho- RFamide plays a role in neurotransmission in sea anemones.
Ultrastructural Localization of Antho-RWamides I and II at Neuromuscular Synapses in the Gastrodermis and Oral Sphincter Muscle of the Sea Anemone Calliactis parasitica.
- J. A. Westfall, K. Sayyar, C. F. Elliott, C. Grimmelikhuijzen
- BiologyThe Biological bulletin
- 1 December 1995
The first ultrastructural evidence of a neuropeptide at a coelenterate neuromuscular synapse is found, and the Antho-RWamide immunoreactive neurites innervate the sphincter muscle fibers directly rather than through intermediate neuronal pathways.