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Nitrogen-enhanced greenhouse warming on early Earth
Early in Earth’s history, the Sun provided less energy to the Earth than it does today. However, the Earth was not permanently glaciated, an apparent contradiction known as the faint young SunExpand
Bistability of atmospheric oxygen and the Great Oxidation
The history of the Earth has been characterized by a series of major transitions separated by long periods of relative stability. The largest chemical transition was the ‘Great Oxidation’,Expand
The Nitrogen Budget of Earth
Abstract We comprehensively compile and review N content in geologic materials to calculate a new N budget for Earth. Using analyses of rocks and minerals in conjunction with N–Ar geochemistryExpand
One mechanism suggested for the L to T dwarf spectral type transition is the appearance of relatively cloud-free regions across the disk of brown dwarfs as they cool. The existence of partly cloudyExpand
Radiative forcing at high concentrations of well‐mixed greenhouse gases
We present new calculations of radiative forcing at very high concentrations of CO2, CH4, and N2O, relevant to extreme anthropogenic climate change and paleoclimate studies. CO2 forcing is calculatedExpand
Low simulated radiation limit for runaway greenhouse climates
As a moist atmosphere warms, it will reach a limit after which it is unable to radiate incoming solar radiation back to space, and a runaway greenhouse will occur. Calculations suggest that thisExpand
Clouds and the Faint Young Sun Paradox
Abstract. We investigate the role which clouds could play in resolving the Faint Young Sun Paradox (FYSP). Lower solar luminosity in the past means that less energy was absorbed on Earth (a forcingExpand
Tidal Venuses: triggering a climate catastrophe via tidal heating.
Traditionally, stellar radiation has been the only heat source considered capable of determining global climate on long timescales. Here, we show that terrestrial exoplanets orbiting low-mass starsExpand
The runaway greenhouse: implications for future climate change, geoengineering and planetary atmospheres
The ultimate climate emergency is a ‘runaway greenhouse’: a hot and water-vapour-rich atmosphere limits the emission of thermal radiation to space, causing runaway warming. Warming ceases only afterExpand
Faint young Sun paradox remains.
Arising from M. T. Rosing, D. K. Bird, N. H. Sleep & C. J. Bjerrum, , 744–747 (2010)10.1038/nature08955 The Sun was fainter when the Earth was young, but the climate was generally at least as warmExpand