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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)
TLDR
There continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes, so it is important to update guidelines for monitoring autophagic activity in different organisms.
The C/EBP Homologous Protein (CHOP) Transcription Factor Functions in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Apoptosis and Microbial Infection
TLDR
Understanding how CHOP functions during microbial infection will assist with the development of antimicrobial therapies, and the upstream and downstream pathways of CHOP in ER stress induced apoptosis are summarized.
Autophagy Benefits the Replication of Newcastle Disease Virus in Chicken Cells and Tissues
TLDR
It is demonstrated that NDV infection induced steady-state autophagy in chicken-derived DF-1 cells and in primary chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells, evident through increased double- or single-membrane vesicles, the accumulation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-LC3 dots, and the conversion ofLC3-I to LC3-II.
The Nedd8-activating enzyme inhibitor MLN4924 induces autophagy and apoptosis to suppress liver cancer cell growth.
TLDR
It is reported that MLN4924 also triggers autophagy in response to CRL inactivation and that this effect is important for the ability of MLN 4924 to suppress the outgrowth of liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
Chicken STING Mediates Activation of the IFN Gene Independently of the RIG-I Gene
TLDR
Results indicated that chSTING is an important regulator of chicken innate immune signaling and might be involved in the MDA5 signaling pathway in chicken cells, and these results help with understanding the biological role of STING in innate immunity during evolution.
HIV-1 Nef Antagonizes SERINC5 Restriction by Downregulation of SERINC5 via the Endosome/Lysosome System
TLDR
It is concluded that Nef uses a similar mechanism to downregulate Ser5 and CD4, which sorts Ser5 into a point-of-no-return degradative pathway to counteract its restriction.
Newcastle disease virus NP and P proteins induce autophagy via the endoplasmic reticulum stress-related unfolded protein response
TLDR
Study of the role of NDV structural proteins in the induction of autophagy through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways suggests not only roles for the NDV NP and P proteins inAutophagy, but also offers new insights into the mechanisms ofNDV-induced autophagic induction through activation of the ER stress- related UPR pathway.
Newcastle disease virus triggers autophagy in U251 glioma cells to enhance virus replication
TLDR
It is reported that, shortly after infection, NDV triggers the formation of autophagosomes in U251 glioma cells, as demonstrated by an increased number of double-membrane vesicles, GFP-microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) a dot formations, and elevated production of LC3II.
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