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Acoustic masking in marine ecosystems: intuitions, analysis, and implication
An analytical paradigm to quantify changes in an animal's acoustic communication space as a result of spatial, spectral, and temporal changes in background noise is presented, providing a functional defini- tion of communication masking for free-ranging animals and a metric to quantify the potential for communicationmasking.
Acoustic monitoring in terrestrial environments using microphone arrays: applications, technological considerations and prospectus
Questions that can be addressed using bioacoustic approaches are reviewed, by providing a primer on technologies and approaches used to study animals at multiple organizational levels by ecologists, behaviourists and conservation biologists.
ABUNDANCE AND POPULATION TREND (1978‐2001) OF WESTERN ARCTIC BOWHEAD WHALES SURVEYED NEAR BARROW, ALASKA
The 2001 survey of western Arctic (Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas) bowhead whales was conducted from 5 April to 7 June near Barrow, Alaska. Visual observers recorded a total of 3,295 “new” (not…
Beaked Whales Respond to Simulated and Actual Navy Sonar
It is shown that in both exposure conditions beaked whales stopped echolocating during deep foraging dives and moved away, indicating similar disruption of foraging behavior and avoidance by beaked whale in the two different contexts, at exposures well below those used by regulators to define disturbance.
Recognizing transient low-frequency whale sounds by spectrogram correlation.
The method described here, spectrogram correlation, is well-suited to recognition of animal sounds consisting of tones and frequency sweeps and could be especially useful for detecting a call type when relatively few instances of the call type are known.
The Physical Acoustics of Underwater Sound Communication
SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION, HABITAT UTILIZATION, AND SOCIAL INTERACTIONS OF HUMPBACK WHALES, MEGAPTERA NOVAEANGLIAE, OFF HAWAI'I, DETERMINED USING ACOUSTIC AND VISUAL TECHNIQUES
Acoustic and visual methods were used to track and observe humpback whales off the island of Hawai'i. Sixty-two singing whales were located acoustically in water depths from 10 to 305 fathoms (mean...
Management and research applications of real-time and archival passive acoustic sensors over varying temporal and spatial scales
Defining the appropriate scale over which to conduct a study in the marine environment is critical to achieving appropriate scientific, management, mitigation and conservation objectives. This paper…
Impacts of anthropogenic noise on marine life : publication patterns, new discoveries, and future directions in research and management
Characterizing the Relative Contributions of Large Vessels to Total Ocean Noise Fields: A Case Study Using the Gerry E. Studds Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary
Noise produced by large commercial vessels was at levels and within frequencies that warrant concern among managers regarding the ability of endangered whales to maintain acoustic contact within greater sanctuary waters.