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Regulation of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Secretion by Kisspeptin/Dynorphin/Neurokinin B Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Mouse
A model whereby NKB and dynorphin act autosynaptically onkisspeptin neurons in the Arc to synchronize and shape the pulsatile secretion of kisspeptin and drive the release of GnRH from fibers in the median eminence is proposed.
The Dysphoric Component of Stress Is Encoded by Activation of the Dynorphin κ-Opioid System
The convergence of stress-induced aversive inputs on the Dynorphin system was unexpected, implicates dynorphin as a key mediator of dysphoria, and emphasizes κ-receptor antagonists as promising therapeutics.
Dynorphin is a specific endogenous ligand of the kappa opioid receptor.
In the guinea pig ileum myenteric plexus--longitudinal muscle preparation, dynorphin-(1--13) and the prototypical kappa agonist ethylketocyclazocine had equally poor sensitivity to naloxone
Regulation of µ-Opioid Receptors: Desensitization, Phosphorylation, Internalization, and Tolerance
There are large gaps in understanding the molecular processes responsible for loss of MOR function after chronic exposure to opioids, and further elucidation of the cellular mechanisms that are regulated by opioids will be necessary for the successful development of MOR-based approaches to new pain therapeutics that limit the development of tolerance.
κ Opioid Receptor Antagonism and Prodynorphin Gene Disruption Block Stress-Induced Behavioral Responses
The findings suggest that chronic swim stress may activate the κ opioid system to produce analgesia, immobility, and potentiation of the acute rewarding properties of cocaine in C57Bl/6 mice.
Prior Activation of Kappa Opioid Receptors by U50,488 Mimics Repeated Forced Swim Stress to Potentiate Cocaine Place Preference Conditioning
It is suggested that kappa receptor activation induced by FSS prior to the cocaine-conditioning session may be both necessary and sufficient for potentiation of the reinforcing actions of cocaine.
Abnormal neurotransmission in mice lacking synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A).
It is demonstrated that SV2A is an essential protein and implicate it in the control of exocytosis, andalyses of synapse ultrastructure suggest that altered neurotransmission is not caused by changes in synapse density or morphology.
Severe stress switches CRF action in the nucleus accumbens from appetitive to aversive
Corticotropin-releasing factor, a neuropeptide released in response to acute stressors and other arousing environmental stimuli, acts in the nucleus accumbens of naive mice to increase dopamine release through coactivation of the receptors CRFR1 and CRFR2, offering a biological substrate for the switch in affect which is central to stress-induced depressive disorders.
Stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking is mediated by the kappa opioid system
The results suggest that stress-induced drug craving in mice may require activation of the dynorphin/kappa opioid system.