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Apelin, a newly identified adipokine up-regulated by insulin and obesity.
Apelin is identified as a novel adipocyte endocrine secretion and its potential link with obesity-associated variations of insulin sensitivity status is focused on and evidence that insulin exerts a direct control on apelin gene expression in adipocytes is provided.
Apelin stimulates glucose utilization in normal and obese insulin-resistant mice.
It is shown that in chow-fed mice, acute intravenous injection of apelin has a powerful glucose-lowering effect associated with enhanced glucose utilization in skeletal muscle and AT and could represent a promising target in the management of insulin resistance.
Selective activation of β3-adrenoceptors by octopamine: comparative studies in mammalian fat cells
Investigation of whether any naturally occurring amine can stimulate selectively β3-ARs found that octopamine was the only amine fully stimulating lipolysis in rat, hamster and dog fat cells, while inefficient in guinea-pig or humanfat cells, like the β2-AR agonists.
TNFalpha up-regulates apelin expression in human and mouse adipose tissue.
A tight correlation between apelin and TNFalpha expression in adipose tissue of lean and obese humans is reported and suggests that apelin might be a candidate to better understand potential links between obesity and associated disorders such as inflammation and insulin resistance.
TNFα up‐regulates apelin expression in human and mouse adipose tissue
We have recently identified apelin as a novel adipokine up‐regulated by insulin and obesity. Since obesity and insulin resistance are associated with chronically elevated levels of both insulin and
Lipolysis is altered in MHC class I zinc‐α2‐glycoprotein deficient mice
In contrast to previously reported data, ZAG was found to be ubiquitously and constitutively expressed, with an especially high level in the mouse liver, and no overt immunological phenotype was identified in these animals.
Expanding role for the apelin/APJ system in physiopathology
This review will consider the main roles of apelin in physiopathology with particular attention on its role in energy balance regulation and in obesity-associated disorders.
Role of Semicarbazide-sensitive Amine Oxidase on Glucose Transport and GLUT4 Recruitment to the Cell Surface in Adipose Cells*
It is proposed that SSAO activity might contribute through hydrogen peroxide production to the in vivo regulation of GLUT4 trafficking in adipose cells.
Inhibition of amine oxidase activity by derivatives that recognize imidazoline I2 sites.
In rat liver membranes, idazoxan had no effect on MAO activity; it neither inhibited MAO nor prevented the inhibition induced by other imidazolines or MAOIs, suggesting that the ligand recognition site of I2 receptors was distinct from the MAOI target site.
Alterations of lipid metabolism and gene expression in rat adipocytes during chronic olanzapine treatment
Impairment of fat cell lipolysis should be considered as a side effect of certain antipsychotics, leading, along with the already documented hyperphagia, to the excessive weight gain observed in patients under prolonged treatment.