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How to track and assess genotyping errors in population genetics studies
TLDR
Four case studies representing a large variety of population genetics investigations differing in their sampling strategies, in the type of organism studied (plant or animal) and the molecular markers used [microsatellites or amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), and the estimated genotyping error rate are considered.
Power and limitations of the chloroplast trnL (UAA) intron for plant DNA barcoding
TLDR
The resolution power of the whole chloroplast trnL (UAA) intron and its P6 loop and has the potential to be extensively used in food industry, in forensic science, in diet analyses based on feces and in ancient DNA studies.
ITS as an environmental DNA barcode for fungi: an in silico approach reveals potential PCR biases
TLDR
It is found that ascomycetes will more easily amplify than basidiomycete ITS sequences using these regions as targets, and this bias can be avoided by using primers amplifying ITS1 only, but this would imply preferential amplification of 'non-dikarya' fungi.
Evolutionary consequences of autopolyploidy.
TLDR
It is hypothesized that polysomic inheritance may provide a short-term evolutionary advantage for autopolyploids compared to diploid relatives when environmental change enforces range shifts, and should possess increased genome flexibility, allowing them to adapt and persist across heterogeneous landscapes in the long run.
Towards next‐generation biodiversity assessment using DNA metabarcoding
TLDR
The near‐term future of DNA metabarcoding has an enormous potential to boost data acquisition in biodiversity research as further developments associated with the impressive progress in DNA sequencing will eliminate the currently required DNA amplification step, and comprehensive taxonomic reference libraries can be built based on the well‐curated DNA extract collections maintained by standardized barcoding initiatives.
Polyploidy in arctic plants
TLDR
It is concluded that the evolutionary success of polyploids in the Arctic may be based on their fixed-heterozygous genomes, which buffer against inbreeding and genetic drift through periods of dramatic climate change.
History and evolution of the arctic flora: in the footsteps of Eric Hultén
TLDR
There is now excellent fossil, molecular and phytogeographical evidence to support Hultén's proposal that Beringia was a major northern refugium for arctic plants throughout the Quaternary, but most molecular evidence fails to support his proposal that contemporary east and west Atlantic populations of circumarctic and amphi‐Atlantic species have been separated throughout the quaternary.
Glacial Survival of Boreal Trees in Northern Scandinavia
TLDR
The presence of a rare mitochondrial DNA haplotype of spruce that appears unique to Scandinavia and with its highest frequency to the west is shown—an area believed to sustain ice-free refugia during most of the last ice age, challenging current views on survival and spread of trees as a response to climate changes.
Fifty thousand years of Arctic vegetation and megafaunal diet
TLDR
The authors' analyses indicate that both graminoids and forbs would have featured in megafaunal diets, and question the predominance of a Late Quaternary graminoid-dominated Arctic mammoth steppe.
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