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The language of covalent histone modifications
TLDR
It is proposed that distinct histone modifications, on one or more tails, act sequentially or in combination to form a ‘histone code’ that is, read by other proteins to bring about distinct downstream events. Expand
Translating the Histone Code
TLDR
It is proposed that this epigenetic marking system represents a fundamental regulatory mechanism that has an impact on most, if not all, chromatin-templated processes, with far-reaching consequences for cell fate decisions and both normal and pathological development. Expand
Regulation of chromatin structure by site-specific histone H3 methyltransferases
TLDR
A functional interdependence of site-specific H3 tail modifications is revealed and a dynamic mechanism for the regulation of higher-order chromatin is suggested. Expand
Yeast Gcn5 functions in two multisubunit complexes to acetylate nucleosomal histones: characterization of an Ada complex and the SAGA (Spt/Ada) complex.
TLDR
The function of Gcn5 as a hist one acetyltransferase within the Ada and SAGA adaptor complexes indicates the importance of histone acetylation during steps in transcription activation mediated by interactions with transcription activators and general transcription factors. Expand
DNMT3L connects unmethylated lysine 4 of histone H3 to de novo methylation of DNA
TLDR
DNMT3L recognizes histone H3 tails that are unmethylated at lysine 4 and induces de novo DNA methylation by recruitment or activation of DNMT3A2, and substitution of key residues in the binding site eliminated the H3 tail–DN MT3L interaction. Expand
Mitosis-specific phosphorylation of histone H3 initiates primarily within pericentromeric heterochromatin during G2 and spreads in an ordered fashion coincident with mitotic chromosome condensation
TLDR
It is proposed that the singular phosphorylation of the amino-terminus of histone H3 may be involved in facilitating two key functions during mitosis: (1) regulate protein-protein interactions to promote binding of trans-acting factors that “drive” chromatin condensation as cells enter M-phase and (2) coordinate chromatin decondensation associated with M- phase. Expand
Regulation of HP1–chromatin binding by histone H3 methylation and phosphorylation
TLDR
It is shown that HP1α, -β, and -γ are released from chromatin during the M phase of the cell cycle, even though tri-methylation levels of histone H3 lysine 9 remain unchanged, and a regulatory mechanism of protein–protein interactions is established through a combinatorial readout of two adjacent post-translational modifications: a stable methylation and a dynamic phosphorylation mark. Expand
Tetrahymena Histone Acetyltransferase A: A Homolog to Yeast Gcn5p Linking Histone Acetylation to Gene Activation
TLDR
These findings shed light on the biochemical function of the evolutionarily conserved Gcn5p-Ada complex, directly linking histone acetylation to gene activation, and indicate that histoneacetylation is a targeted phenomenon. Expand
Molecular basis for the discrimination of repressive methyl-lysine marks in histone H3 by Polycomb and HP1 chromodomains.
TLDR
It is shown that the chromodomain proteins Polycomb (Pc) and HP1 (heterochromatin protein 1) are highly discriminatory for binding to these sites in vivo and in vitro, and a role for their Chromodomains in both target site binding and discrimination is indicated. Expand
Histone acetyltransferases.
TLDR
This review discusses the current understanding of histone acetyl transferases (HATs) or acetyltransferases (ATs): their discovery, substrate specificity, catalytic mechanism, regulation, and functional links to transcription, as well as to other chromatin-modifying activities. Expand
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