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The transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) agonist, capsaicin, enhances glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission in CNS neurons. Resiniferatoxin (RTX) has a much higher affinity for TRPV1 than capsaicin, but its ability to modulate excitatory transmission is unclear. We examined the effect of RTX on excitatory(More)
Past studies have shown that amplified insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1)/IGF1 receptor (IGF1-R) signalling has an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC) development, progression and resistance to treatment. In this report, we demonstrate that downregulation of microRNA-497 (miR-497) as a result of DNA copy number reduction is involved in upregulation(More)
Past studies have shown that histone deacetylase (HDAC) and mutant BRAF (v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) inhibitors synergistically kill melanoma cells with activating mutations in BRAF. However, the mechanism(s) involved remains less understood. Here, we report that combinations of HDAC and BRAF inhibitors kill BRAF(V600E) melanoma cells by(More)
Bim is known to be critical in killing of melanoma cells by inhibition of the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway. However, the potential role of the most potent apoptosis-inducing isoform of Bim, Bim(S), remains largely unappreciated. Here, we show that inhibition of the mutant B-RAF(V600E) triggers preferential splicing to produce Bim(S), which is particularly important(More)
Nanoparticles are now emerging as a novel class of autophagy activators. Functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (f-SWCNTs) are valuable nanomaterials in many industries. This article is designed to assess the autophagic response for f-SWCNTs exposure in vitro and in vivo. A few types of f-SWCNTs were screened in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells(More)
Past studies have shown that upregulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Mcl-1 is a major adaptive mechanism of melanoma cells to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and has an important role in resistance of the cells to apoptosis. In this study, we show that the increase in transcription of Mcl-1 in melanoma cells triggered by pharmacological(More)
An activating BRAF (V600E) kinase mutation occurs in approximately half of melanomas. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated that vemurafenib (PLX4032) and dabrafenib, potent and selective inhibitors of mutant v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF), exhibit remarkable activities in patients with V600 BRAF mutant melanomas. However,(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggers apoptosis by activating Bim in diverse types of cells, which involves dephosphorylation of Bim(EL) by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). However, melanoma cells are largely resistant to ER stress-induced apoptosis, suggesting that Bim activation is suppressed in melanoma cells undergoing ER stress. We show here that ER(More)
Vibration waves produced by the knee joint during extension-flexion may be recorded by vibration arthrometry. When the speed of this motion is less than 5 degrees per second, the vibration produced by the patella is referred to as physiological patellofemoral crepitus (PPC), which reflects the integrity of articular cartilage. PPC signals were recorded(More)
Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B) negatively regulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling and is a tumor suppressor in some types of cancers. However, we have found that it is frequently upregulated in human colon cancer cells. Here we show that silencing of INPP4B blocks activation of Akt and serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated(More)