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The completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence allows a comparative analysis of transcriptional regulators across the three eukaryotic kingdoms. Arabidopsis dedicates over 5% of its genome to code for more than 1500 transcription factors, about 45% of which are from families specific to plants. Arabidopsis transcription factors that belong to(More)
CO2 chemoreception may be mediated by the modulation of certain ion channels in neurons. Kir4.1 and Kir5.1, two members of the inward rectifier K+ channel family, are expressed in several brain regions including the brainstem. To test the hypothesis that Kir4.1 and Kir5. 1 are modulated by CO2 and pH, we carried out experiments by expressing Kir4.1 and(More)
The transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) agonist, capsaicin, enhances glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission in CNS neurons. Resiniferatoxin (RTX) has a much higher affinity for TRPV1 than capsaicin, but its ability to modulate excitatory transmission is unclear. We examined the effect of RTX on excitatory(More)
The results of a 90-day rat feeding study with YieldGard (YieldGard Rootworm Corn is a registered trademark of Monsanto Technology, LLC.) Rootworm corn (MON 863) grain that is protected against feeding damage caused by corn rootworm larvae are presented. Corn rootworm-protection was accomplished through the introduction of a cry3Bb1 coding sequence into the(More)
Ion channels play an important role in cellular functions, and specific cellular activity can be produced by gating them. One important gating mechanism is produced by intra- or extracellular ligands. Although the ligand-mediated channel gating is an important cellular process, the relationship between ligand binding and channel gating is not well(More)
Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293) are widely used as an expression system in studies of ion channels. However, their endogenous ionic currents remain largely unidentified. To characterize these currents, we performed patch clamp experiments on this expression system. In whole-cell voltage clamp mode, the HEK 293 cells showed mainly outward currents(More)
Past studies have shown that amplified insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1)/IGF1 receptor (IGF1-R) signalling has an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC) development, progression and resistance to treatment. In this report, we demonstrate that downregulation of microRNA-497 (miR-497) as a result of DNA copy number reduction is involved in upregulation(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Brain arteriovenous fistulas (BAVFs) are dangerous lesions with significant risks for hemorrhage and re-hemorrhage; thus, the management of BAVFs is an important subject. Flow disconnection can be accomplished by surgical or endovascular techniques. We reviewed the experience in our endovascular treatment of patients with BAVFs. (More)
Several inward rectifier K(+) (Kir) channels are pH-sensitive, making them potential candidates for CO(2) chemoreception in cells. However, there is no evidence showing that Kir channels change their activity at near physiological level of P(CO(2)), as most previous studies were done using high concentrations of CO(2). It is known that the heteromeric(More)
1. The inward rectifier K+ channel Kir2.3 is inhibited by hypercapnia, and this inhibition may be mediated by decreases in intra- and extracellular pH. To understand whether Kir2.3 has two distinct pH sensors and whether cytosol-soluble factors are involved in the modulation of this channel during intracellular acidification, single channel currents were(More)