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It is generally held that vertebrate muscle precursors depend totally on environmental cues for their development. We show that instead, somites are predisposed toward a particular myogenic program. This predisposition depends on the somite's axial identity: when flank somites are transformed into limb-level somites, either by shifting somitic boundaries(More)
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases constitute a family of flavoproteins that catalyze the alpha,beta-dehydrogenation of fatty acid acyl-CoA conjugates. While they differ widely in their specificity, they share the same basic chemical mechanism of alpha,beta-dehydrogenation. Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase is probably the best-studied member of the class and serves(More)
Pig kidney general acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (GAD) can be reduced by butyryl-CoA to form reduced enzyme and crotonyl-CoA. This reaction is reversible. Stopped-flow, kinetic investigations on GAD have been made, using the following reaction pairs: oxidized GAD/butyryl-CoA, oxidized GAD/crotonyl-CoA, oxidized GAD/alpha,beta-dideuteriobutyryl-CoA, reduced(More)
This study describes a method of quantitatively characterizing cough sounds using digital signal processing techniques. Differences between asthmatic and non-asthmatic cough sounds are presented. Coughs from 12 asthmatic and 5 non-asthmatic subjects were analysed. Cough sounds and flows were digitized, at a sampling rate of 5 kHz, before and after a(More)
Butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase from Megasphera elsdenii catalyzes the exchange of the alpha- and beta-hydrogens of substrate with solvent [Gomes, B., Fendrich, G., & Abeles, R. H. (1981) Biochemistry 20, 1481-1490]. The stoichiometry of this exchange was determined by using 3H2O label as 1.94 +/- 0.1 per substrate molecule. The rate of 3H label incorporation(More)
Protein stability, assembly, localization and regulation often depend on the formation of disulphide crosslinks between cysteine side chains. Enzymes known as sulphydryl oxidases catalyse de novo disulphide formation and initiate intra- and intermolecular dithiol/disulphide relays to deliver the disulphides to substrate proteins. Quiescin sulphydryl oxidase(More)
Oxidation of thioester substrates in the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase involves alpha-proton abstraction by the catalytic base, Glu376, with transfer of a beta-hydride equivalent to the flavin prosthetic group. Polarization of bound acyl-CoA derivatives by the recombinant human liver enzyme has been studied with 4-thia-trans-2-enoyl-CoA analogues.(More)
The flavoprotein medium-chain acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase from pig kidney exhibits an intrinsic hydratase activity toward crotonyl-CoA yielding L-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA. The maximal turnover number of about 0.5 min-1 is 500-1000-fold slower than the dehydrogenation of butyryl-CoA using electron-transferring flavoprotein as terminal acceptor.(More)
3,4-Pentadienoyl-CoA, an allenic substrate analog, is a potent inhibitor of the flavoprotein pig-kidney general acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. The analog reacts very rapidly (k = 2.4 X 10(3) min-1) with the native oxidized enzyme to form a covalent flavin adduct probably involving the isoalloxazine position N-5. This species is inactive, but activity may be(More)
A sonar system's echolocation capabilities can be inferred from the ambiguity distribution (defined here in terms of the conventional signal response function) of each of its transmitted signals. Several records of sounds emitted by Hector's dolphin are analyzed. The computed ambiguity distributions indicate that the sonar clicks of Hector's dolphins should(More)