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The current study investigated healing of large full-thickness articular cartilage defects during the first 8 weeks with and without penetration of the subchondral bone using microfracture in an established equine model of cartilage healing. Chondral defects in the weightbearing portion of the medial femoral condyle were made bilaterally; one defect in each(More)
A detailed musculoskeletal model of the distal equine forelimb was developed to study the influence of musculoskeletal geometry (i.e. muscle paths) and muscle physiology (i.e. force-length properties) on the force- and moment-generating capacities of muscles crossing the carpal and metacarpophalangeal joints. The distal forelimb skeleton was represented as(More)
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and adipose-derived progenitor cells (ADPCs) are potential alternatives to autologous chondrocytes for cartilage resurfacing strategies. In this study, the chondrogenic potentials of these cell types were compared by quantifying neo-tissue synthesis and assaying gene expression and accumulation of extracellular(More)
PURPOSE This study evaluated intra-articular injection of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to augment healing with microfracture compared with microfracture alone. METHODS Ten horses (aged 2.5 to 5 years) had 1-cm2 defects arthroscopically created on both medial femoral condyles of the stifle joint (analogous to the human knee). Defects(More)
BACKGROUND Microfracture of full-thickness articular defects has been shown to significantly enhance the amount of repair tissue. However, there is a suggestion that leaving calcified cartilage inhibits this repair response. HYPOTHESIS Removal of the calcified cartilage with retention of subchondral bone enhances the amount of attachment of the repair(More)
BACKGROUND Current autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) techniques require 2 surgical procedures: 1 for cell harvest and 1 for reimplantation of cultured cells. A 1-step procedure is more desirable. PURPOSE A 1-step surgical procedure using autologous cartilage fragments on a polydioxanone scaffold, or CAIS (cartilage autograft implantation system),(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether muscle moment arms at the carpal and metacarpophalangeal joints can be modeled as fixed-radius pulleys for the range of motion associated with the stance phase of the gait in equine forelimbs. SAMPLE POPULATION 4 cadaveric forelimbs from 2 healthy Thoroughbreds. PROCEDURE Thin wire cables were sutured at the(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of arthroscopic subchondral bone microfracture on healing of large chondral defects in horses. STUDY DESIGN Short- (4 months) and long-term (12 months) in vivo experimental chondral defect model. ANIMALS 10 horses, aged 2 to 5 years. METHODS Each horse had a 1 cm2 full-thickness chondral defect created in both radial(More)
Osteoarthritis in horses and in humans is a significant social and economic problem and continued research and improvements in therapy are needed. Because horses have naturally occurring osteoarthritis, which is similar to that of humans, the horse was chosen as a species with which to investigate gene transfer as a potential therapeutic modality for the(More)
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dynamic compression on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) chondrogenesis. Dynamic compression was applied to agarose hydrogels seeded with bone marrow-derived adult equine MSCs. In the absence of the chondrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta), dynamic compression applied for 12 h per(More)