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The human genome encodes approximately 100,000 different genes, and at least partial sequence information for nearly all will be available soon. Sequence information alone, however, is insufficient for a full understanding of gene function, expression, regulation, and splice-site variation. Because cellular processes are governed by the repertoire of(More)
TRAF6 is a signal transducer that activates IkappaB kinase (IKK) and Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) in response to pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). IKK activation by TRAF6 requires two intermediary factors, TRAF6-regulated IKK activator 1 (TRIKA1) and TRIKA2 (ref. 5). TRIKA1 is a dimeric(More)
Hippocampal organotypic slice cultures maintained 10-20 days in vitro express a high level of the polysialylated embryonic form of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (PSA-NCAM). Treatment of the cultures with endoneuraminidase-N selectively removed polysialic acid (PSA) from NCAM and completely prevented induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) and(More)
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) binding to the TNF receptor (TNFR) potentially initiates apoptosis and activates the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), which suppresses apoptosis by an unknown mechanism. The activation of NF-kappaB was found to block the activation of caspase-8. TRAF1 (TNFR-associated factor 1), TRAF2, and the(More)
Many cells are resistant to stimuli that can induce apoptosis, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. The activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) by tumor necrosis factor (TNF), ionizing radiation, or daunorubicin (a cancer chemotherapeutic compound), was found to protect from cell killing. Inhibition of(More)
Both acute and chronic administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists such as phencyclidine and dizocilpine have been proposed to mimic some of the symptoms of schizophrenia. The purposes of the present study were first, to characterize the long-term behavioral and neurodegenerative effects of subchronic administration of phencyclidine(More)
The botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause the paralytic human disease botulism and are one of the highest-risk threat agents for bioterrorism. To generate a pharmaceutical to prevent or treat botulism, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated by phage display and evaluated for neutralization of BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A) in vivo. Although no single mAb(More)
Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center and Los Angeles BioMedical Research Institute, General Clinical Research Center, 1000 W. Carson Street, Torrance, California 90509, USA, Centre for Reproductive Medicine and Andrology, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany, Center for Reproductive Medicine and Andrology,(More)
Human paternal population history was studied in 9 populations [three Native American, three Asian, two Caucasian and one African-derived sample(s)] using sequence and short tandem repeat haplotype diversity within the non-pseudoautosegmal region of the Y chromosome. Complete coding and additional flanking sequences (949 base pairs) of the RPS4Y locus were(More)
MyoD regulates skeletal muscle differentiation (SMD) and is essential for repair of damaged tissue. The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) is activated by the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a mediator of skeletal muscle wasting in cachexia. Here, the role of NF-kappaB in cytokine-induced muscle degeneration was explored. In(More)