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The conductivity of the human skull plays an important role in source localization of brain activity, because it is low as compared to other tissues in the head. The value usually taken for the conductivity of skull is questionable. In a carefully chosen procedure, in which sterility, a stable temperature, and relative humidity were guaranteed, we measured(More)
This study investigated within-subject test-retest reproducibility (i.e., reliability) of language lateralization obtained with fMRI. Nine healthy subjects performed the same set of three different language tasks during two fMRI sessions on separate days (verb generation, antonym generation, and picture naming). A fourth task analysis was added in which the(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging as an alternative to intraoperative electrocortical stimulation mapping for the localization of critical language areas in the temporoparietal region. We investigated several requirements that functional magnetic resonance imaging must fulfill for clinical implementation:(More)
PURPOSE Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is known to be a major cause of intractable epilepsy. The cellular mechanism(s) underlying the epileptogenicity of FCD remain largely unknown. Because recent studies indicate that metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes (mGluRs) play a role in epileptogenesis, we investigated the expression and cellular distribution(More)
In a selected group of temporal lobe epilepsy patients with seizures refractory to pharmacological treatment, pharmacological seizure control can be attained by surgical resection of the epileptic zone. We investigated to what extent pharmaco-resistance is reflected in a reduced response at the cellular level, in neurons acutely isolated from the temporal(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the long-term effects of temporal lobe epilepsy surgery on verbal memory. METHODS We assessed verbal memory performance as measured by a verbal learning test ("15 Words Test," a Dutch adaptation of Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test) before surgery and at three specific times after surgery: 6 months, 2 years, and 6 years in 85(More)
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES To evaluate the diagnostic relevance of ipsilateral atrophy of the collateral white matter in the parahippocampal gyrus (ACWMp) and temporal lobe gray/white matter demarcation loss (GWDL) on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with histologically confirmed hippocampal sclerosis. In the second part of this investigation,(More)
In patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), increased extracellular glutamate levels in the epileptogenic hippocampus both during and after clinical seizures have been reported. These increased glutamate levels could be the result of malfunctioning and/or downregulation of glutamate transporters (also known as EAATs; excitatory amino acid(More)
Due to the reported variability of the language laterality index (LI) across fMRI studies, reliable distinction between patients with unilateral and mixed language dominance is currently not possible, preventing clinical implementation of fMRI as a replacement for the invasive Wada test. Variability of the LI may be related to differences in experimental(More)
The cell-specific distribution of multidrug resistance extrusion pumps was studied in developmental glioneuronal lesions, including focal cortical dysplasia (15 cases) and ganglioglioma (15 cases) from patients with medically intractable epilepsy. Lesional, perilesional, as well as normal brain regions were examined for the expression of the multidrug(More)