C. Varela

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Coupled oscillations are hypothesized to organize the processing of information across distributed brain circuits. This idea is supported by recent evidence, and newly developed techniques promise to put such theoretical framework to mechanistic testing. We review evidence suggesting that individual oscillatory cycles constitute a functional unit that(More)
BACKGROUND Low-frequency (delta/theta) oscillations in the thalamocortical system are elevated in schizophrenia during wakefulness and are also induced in the N-methyl-D-asparate receptor hypofunction rat model. To determine whether abnormal delta oscillations might produce functional deficits, we used optogenetic methods in awake rats. We illuminated(More)
Thalamic input to the neocortex is crucial for sensory perception and constitutes the basis of complex awake behavior. Connections within the neocortex play an important role in internally generated neural activity, which is considered critical for memory retrieval and for the generation of imagery in our dreams. Modulatory neurotransmitters, such as(More)
The hippocampus is critical for the storage of new autobiographical experiences as memories. Following an initial encoding stage in the hippocampus, memories undergo a process of systems-level consolidation, which leads to greater stability through time and an increased reliance on neocortical areas for retrieval. The extent to which the retrieval of these(More)
Learning and memory theories consider sleep and the reactivation of waking hippocampal neural patterns to be crucial for the long-term consolidation of memories. Here we propose that precisely coordinated representations across brain regions allow the inference and evaluation of causal relationships to train an internal generative model of the world. This(More)
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