C. Tim Scott

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High-resolution chemostratigraphy reveals an episode of enrichment of the redox-sensitive transition metals molybdenum and rhenium in the late Archean Mount McRae Shale in Western Australia. Correlations with organic carbon indicate that these metals were derived from contemporaneous seawater. Rhenium/osmium geochronology demonstrates that the enrichment is(More)
The chemical composition of the ocean changed markedly with the oxidation of the Earth's surface, and this process has profoundly influenced the evolutionary and ecological history of life. The early Earth was characterized by a reducing ocean-atmosphere system, whereas the Phanerozoic eon (less than 542 million years ago) is known for a stable and(More)
Native aspen (Populus tremuloides) was pretreated using sulfuric acid and sodium bisulfite (SPORL) and dilute sulfuric acid alone (DA). Simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was conducted at 18% solids using commercial enzymes with cellulase loadings ranging from 6 to 15 FPU/g glucan and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5. Compared with DA(More)
The rheological properties of acid hydrolyzed corn stover at high solids concentration (20-35 wt.%) were investigated using torque rheometry. These materials are yield stress fluids whose rheological properties can be well represented by the Bingham model. Yield stresses increase with increasing solids concentration and decrease with increasing hydrolysis(More)
Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass in a high shear environment was examined. The conversion of cellulose to glucose in samples mixed in a torque rheometer producing shear flows similar to those found in twin screw extruders was greater than that of unmixed samples. In addition, there is a synergistic effect of mixing and enzymatic hydrolysis;(More)
This study applied dilute acid (DA) and sulfite pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) to deconstruct earlywood and latewood cell walls of Douglas fir for fermentable sugars production through subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. DA pretreatment removed almost all the hemicelluloses, while SPORL at initial pH = 4.5 (SP-B) removed(More)
Digital image correlation was used to measure the full-field deformation of paperboard and handsheet tensile specimens. The correlation technique was able to accurately measure strain in regions 0.6 by 0.6 mm. Results showed the variation of strain to be much larger than has been previously reported. For machinemade paperboard tested in the cross-direction,(More)
Additives were tested for their ability to modify the rheology of lignocellulosic biomass. Additive types included water-soluble polymers (WSPs), surfactants, and fine particles. WSPs were the most effective rheological modifiers, reducing yield stresses of concentrated biomass by 60–80% for additive concentrations of 1–2 wt. % (based on mass of dry biomass(More)