C. T. Russell

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On 3 January 2000, the Galileo spacecraft passed close to Europa when it was located far south of Jupiter's magnetic equator in a region where the radial component of the magnetospheric magnetic field points inward toward Jupiter. This pass with a previously unexamined orientation of the external forcing field distinguished between an induced and a(More)
The mineralogy of Vesta, based on data obtained by the Dawn spacecraft's visible and infrared spectrometer, is consistent with howardite-eucrite-diogenite meteorites. There are considerable regional and local variations across the asteroid: Spectrally distinct regions include the south-polar Rheasilvia basin, which displays a higher diogenitic component,(More)
Vesta is a large differentiated rocky body in the main asteroid belt that accreted within the first few million years after the formation of the earliest solar system solids. The Dawn spacecraft extensively imaged Vesta's surface, revealing a collision-dominated history. Results show that Vesta's cratering record has a strong north-south dichotomy. Vesta's(More)
The accretion of bodies in the asteroid belt was halted nearly 4.6 billion years ago by the gravitational influence of the newly formed giant planet Jupiter. The asteroid belt therefore preserves a record of both this earliest epoch of Solar System formation and variation of conditions within the solar nebula. Spectral features in reflected sunlight(More)
The rotation rate of a planet is one of its fundamental properties. Saturn's rotation, however, is difficult to determine because there is no solid surface from which to time it, and the alternative 'clock'--the magnetic field--is nearly symmetrically aligned with the rotation axis. Radio emissions, thought to provide a proxy measure of the rotation of the(More)
Large-scale, electric currents flowing along magnetic field lines into the polar regions of Earth are thought to be the main contributors of the energy that powers the ionospheric aurora. However, we have found evidence for global contributions from electromagnetic waves (Alfvén waves). Data that were collected from the Polar spacecraft over the course of 1(More)
The Galileo spacecraft has been orbiting Jupiter since 7 December 1995, and encounters one of the four galilean satellites-Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto-on each orbit. Initial results from the spacecraft's magnetometer have indicated that neither Europa nor Callisto have an appreciable internal magnetic field, in contrast to Ganymede and possibly Io.(More)
The Cassini magnetometer has detected the interaction of the magnetospheric plasma of Saturn with an atmospheric plume at the icy moon Enceladus. This unanticipated finding, made on a distant flyby, was subsequently confirmed during two follow-on flybys, one very close to Enceladus. The magnetometer data are consistent with local outgassing activity via a(More)
Cassini's successful orbit insertion has provided the first examination of Saturn's magnetosphere in 23 years, revealing a dynamic plasma and magnetic environment on short and long time scales. There has been no noticeable change in the internal magnetic field, either in its strength or its near-alignment with the rotation axis. However, the external(More)