Learn More
As the Earth warms, many species are likely to disappear, often because of changing disease dynamics. Here we show that a recent mass extinction associated with pathogen outbreaks is tied to global warming. Seventeen years ago, in the mountains of Costa Rica, the Monteverde harlequin frog (Atelopus sp.) vanished along with the golden toad (Bufo periglenes).(More)
The evolution of grasses using C4 photosynthesis and their sudden rise to ecological dominance 3 to 8 million years ago is among the most dramatic examples of biome assembly in the geological record. A growing body of work suggests that the patterns and drivers of C4 grassland expansion were considerably more complex than originally assumed. Previous(More)
The photosynthetic pathway composition (C3:C4 mixture) of an ecosystem is an important controller of carbon exchanges and surface energy flux partitioning, and therefore represents a fundamental ecophysiological distinction. To assess photosynthetic mixtures at a tallgrass prairie pasture in Oklahoma, we collected nighttime above-canopy air samples along(More)
In recent decades, intense droughts, insect outbreaks, and wildfires have led to decreasing tree growth and increasing mortality in many temperate forests. We compared annual tree-ring width data from 1,097 populations in the coterminous United States to climate data and evaluated site-specific tree responses to climate variations throughout the 20th(More)
'C4 photosynthesis' refers to a suite of traits that increase photosynthesis in high light and high temperature environments. Most C4 plants are grasses, which dominate tropical and subtropical grasslands and savannas but are conspicuously absent from cold growing season climates. Physiological attributes of C4 photosynthesis have been invoked to explain C4(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to provide guidelines for the nutritional and endocrine management of adults after bariatric surgery, including those with diabetes mellitus. The focus is on the immediate postoperative period and long-term management to prevent complications, weight regain, and progression of obesity-associated comorbidities. The treatment of specific(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of naltrexone/bupropion (NB) combination therapy on weight and weight-related risk factors in overweight and obese participants. DESIGN AND METHODS CONTRAVE Obesity Research-II (COR-II) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 1,496 obese (BMI 30-45 kg/m(2) ) or overweight (27-45 kg/m(2) with dyslipidemia and/or(More)
Phylogenetic thinking has infiltrated many areas of biological research, but has had little impact on studies of global ecology or climate change. Here, we illustrate how phylogenetic information can be relevant to understanding vegetation-atmosphere dynamics at ecosystem or global scales by re-analyzing a data set of carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity in(More)
Moisture inputs drive soil respiration (SR) dynamics in semi-arid and arid ecosystems. However, determining the contributions of root and microbial respiration to SR, and their separate temporal responses to periodic drought and water pulses, remains poorly understood. This study was conducted in a pine forest ecosystem with a Mediterranean-type climate(More)